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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATABASE OF THE HUMAN USES OF LICHENS

SORTED BY LICHEN TAXON

Go to Database sorted by type of use

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Compiled by Sylvia Duran Sharnoff

I would like to thank everyone who contributed information and references.

Note that the first group of 15 entries are in quotation marks, indicating that the identification of the lichen is particularly uncertain. This group is not in alphabetical order.

"Physcia" DYE SOURCE Acoma
Area: southwestern U.S.
Notes: (Physcia) collected from rocks, ground, and mixed with Pinion pine resin for a deep yellow paint. (ref. Dennis, 1939)
Brough, SG. 1988. Navajo lichen dyes. Lichenologist 20(3): 279-290. Page 279.

"Physcia" DYE SOURCE Laguna Indians
Area: southwestern U.S.
Notes: (Physcia) collected from rocks, ground, and mixed with Pinion pine resin for a deep yellow paint. (ref. Dennis, 1939)
Brough, SG. 1988. Navajo lichen dyes. Lichenologist 20(3): 279-290. Page 279.

"Usnea" MAGICAL PROPERTIES
Notes: "Usnea was the name given particularly to the moss or mildew that grew upon the skulls of the dead. Of particular value was that from the skull of a man who had been hanged, especially if 'hung in chains.' It was an important ingredient in the 'sympathetic ointment' with which the weapon that had produced a wound was anointed, for the purpose of curing the wound itself." [from footnote by translator]
Abbonus, P. 1924. De Venenis of Petrus Abbonus, trans. HM Brown. Annals of the History of Medicine VI(1): .

"earth flower" HALLUCINOGEN Pima
Area: southwestern U.S.
Notes: unidentified lichen; Pima and Papago names translate as "earth flower." "This lichen, which has a strong odor, is the color of gray ashes and grows on rocks and dead wood in certain spots on the hills. It has more religious meaning than any other plant, and is smoked, mixed with tobacco, at summer dances, when its distinctive odor is noticeable. Like marijuana, the smoking of [it] 'makes young men crazy.' 'The pima believer that if they smoke this lichen they can get any women they want, but this is just a superstition,' explained George Webb."
Curtin, LSM. 1984. Ethnobotany of the Pima (By the Prophet of the Earth). Univ. of Arizona Press. Page 77.

"earth flower" MAGICAL PROPERTIES Maricopa
Area: southwestern U.S.
Notes: unidentified lichen; Pima and Papago names translate as "earth flower." Although Pima men carried in pockets to bring luck, Maricopa men were afraid that carrying it too much would make them sick.
Curtin, LSM. 1984. Ethnobotany of the Pima (By the Prophet of the Earth). Univ. of Arizona Press. Page 77.

"earth flower" MAGICAL PROPERTIES Pima
Area: southwestern U.S.
Notes: unidentified lichen; Pima and Papago names translate as "earth flower." Pima men carried in pockets to bring luck in killing game.
Curtin, LSM. 1984. Ethnobotany of the Pima (By the Prophet of the Earth). Univ. of Arizona Press. Page 77.

"earth flower" MAGICAL PROPERTIES Pima
Area: southwestern U.S.
Notes: unidentified lichen; Pima and Papago names translate as "earth flower." "This lichen, which has a strong odor, is the color of gray ashes and grows on rocks and dead wood in certain spots on the hills. It has more religious meaning than any other plant, and is smoked, mixed with tobacco, at summer dances, when its distinctive odor is noticeable. Like marajuana, the smoking of [it] 'makes young men crazy.' 'The pima believer that if they smoke this lichen they can get any women they want, but this is just a superstition,' explained George Webb."
Curtin, LSM. 1984. Ethnobotany of the Pima (By the Prophet of the Earth). Univ. of Arizona Press. Page 77.

"earth flower" MAGICAL PROPERTIES Pima
Area: southwestern U.S.
Notes: unidentified lichen; Pima and Papago names translate as "earth flower." Informant Isaac Howard described as being reddish and white and different colors, smelling like violets. Ground into a powder which is sprinkled on sores or cuts. Example: curing lanced rattlesnake bite that would not heal.
Curtin, LSM. 1984. Ethnobotany of the Pima (By the Prophet of the Earth). Univ. of Arizona Press. Page 77.

"grey lichens" MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Spanish New Mexicans
Area: New Mexico
Notes: rubbed on gums as cure for pyorrhea, powdered and applied on any kind of sore or injury.
Curtin, LSM. 1974. Healing herbs of the Upper Rio Grande. Southwest Museum, Los Angeles (also, 1976, Arroyo Press, Los Angeles). Page 200.

"grey lichens" MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Santo Domingo Pueblo
Area: New Mexico (?)
Notes: boiled green and given to one who talks and laughs to himself. Also good for headaches.
Curtin, LSM. 1974. Healing herbs of the Upper Rio Grande. Southwest Museum, Los Angeles (also, 1976, Arroyo Press, Los Angeles). Page 200.

"moss" HUMAN FOOD Ingalik
Area: Alaska
Notes: "undigested (moss) in the stomach of a caribou which has been killed is highly appreciated as may be judged from its name which is "stomach 'ice cream.'" The (moss) is take out of the stomach and put into a dish. Then raw, mashed fish eggs of any kind are poured over the moss and the whole thing thoroughly stirred as is done with "ice cream." An time caribou are killed, this mixture is eaten by men, women and children for all of whom it is a favorite dish although it tastes strong."
Osgood, C. 1959. Ingalik mental culture. Yale University Publications in Anthropology. Dept. of Anthropology, Yale University. Page 48.

"pyrenocarpous lichen" MISC. HUMAN USE Deni(s)
Area: Brazil
Notes: "This is collected from a (pyrenocarpous lichen). [Mason Hale unable to ID because of condition.] The yellow powder of the medulla on the surface of the lichen is collected from the tree trunks where it grows." Sniffed in small quantities. Causes tingling and sneezing.
Prance, GT. 1972. Ethnobotanical notes from Amazonian Brazil. Econ. Bot. 26 (3): 221-. Page 227.

"reindeer moss" FUEL/TINDER Belcher Island Eskimo
Area: Belcher Islands, Hudson Bay, Canada
Notes: "Lichens ("reindeer moss") are also gathered and burn with an intense though short-lived flame."
Freeman, MMR. 1967. An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo. Arctic 20(3): 154-175. Page 157.

"rock lichens" MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Paiute
Area: Ruby Valley, Nevada
Notes: "One cure for smallpox is prepared by boiling together the leaves of Cowania, powdered (rock lichens) and 'kah seep' [a black, pitch-like substance...the dried urine of mountain rats]. The solution is taken morning and night in doses of a half-cupful.
Train, P.; Heinrichs, J.R.; Archer, W.A.. 1974. Medicinal uses of plants by Indian tribes of Nevada. Pages 53- In Horr, D.A., ed. American Indian Ethnohistory: Paiute Indians IV. Page 118.

"yellow rock fungus" MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Hopi
Area: Polacca (First Mesa) AZ
Notes: "yellow rock fungus" applied to cheeks to reduce swelling after medicine woman rubbed cheeks to extract "foreign things" as cure for toothache and swollen cheeks.
Beaglehole, E.; Beaglehole, P.. 1935. Hopi of the Second Mesa. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association no. 44: 6. Page 5.

Alectoria ochroleuca HUMAN FOOD Russia
Area: arctic/subarctic Eurasia
Notes: method for making glucose "molasses" developed during World War II (in 1934-3) in former Soviet Union because beet sugar scarce and potatoes and grain used for military purposes. Alectoria ochroleuca yielded 82% of dry weight in glucose. Of lichens used, this cleared best, producing light yellow syrup without foreign flavors.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 385.

Alectoria sarmentosa MISC. HUMAN USE Sechelt
Area: British Columbia
Notes: put on fire to produce smoke.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Alectoria sarmentosa FIBER Hanaksiala
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Used as mattresses at seasonal camps. Ref. Compton, B.D. 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Alectoria sarmentosa FIBER Lillooet (Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: used (with Bryoria fremontii) for weaving clothing, such as ponchos and footwear. Not considered high quality: used only be poorer people who couldn't get skins. Usually interwoven with stronger fibrous material such as silverberry bark.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Alectoria sarmentosa FIBER Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: valued for absorbent qualities -- (wound dressing), baby diapers, sanitary napkins for women, wiping salmon
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 55.

Alectoria sarmentosa FIBER Sechelt
Area: British Columbia
Notes: used for baby diapers.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Alectoria sarmentosa FALSE HAIR, WHISKERS Bella Coola
Area: British Columbia
Notes: "used as false whiskers and artificial hair for decorating dance masks and masquerading, especially by children."
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Alectoria sarmentosa FALSE HAIR, WHISKERS Bella Coola Indians
Area: British Columbia, Canada
Notes: used as artificial hair to decorate dance masks.
Turner, N.J.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6: 193-220.

Alectoria sarmentosa FALSE HAIR, WHISKERS Shuswap
Area: British Columbia
Notes: "used as false whiskers and artificial hair for decorating dance masks and masquerating, especially by children.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Alectoria sarmentosa MEDICINE, ABSORBENT FIBER Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: valued for absorbent qualities -- wound dressing.
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 55.

Alectoria spp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Finland
Area: Finland
Notes: included in the (beard mosses) that are placed on wounds, skin eruptions, and athlete's foot.
Vartia, K.O.. 1973. Antibiotics in lichens. Pages 547-561 In Ahmadjian, V, Hale, ME, eds. The Lichens. Page 548.

Anaptychia ciliaris COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) India
Area: Howrah, Hooghly, and West Himalaya districts
Notes: made into hair powder.
Richardson, DHS. 1974. The Vanishing Lichens. Their History, Biology and Importance (section on human uses). Hafner Press (Macmillan Publishing Co.), New York. Page 118.

Arctoparmelia centrifuga DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Great Britain
Notes: (Parmelia centrifuga) yields red-brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Aspicilia calcarea DYE SOURCE Sweden
Area: Sweden
Notes: (Lecanora calcarea): red-brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 210.

Aspicilia esculenta HUMAN FOOD Arabs
Area: Mideast
Notes: Earliest mention of (Lecanora esculenta) in Arabic works was 9th to 13th centuries as an ingredient of wine made from honey and of medicinal compounds.
Crum, H. 1993. A lichenologist's view of lichen manna. Contributions to the University of Michigan Herbarium 19: 293-306. Page 296.

Aspicilia esculenta HUMAN FOOD Persia
Area: Persia
Notes: There is a tradition in Sistann (in eastern Persia) that Alexander's army escaped starvation in 330-327 B.C. by eating (Lecanora esculenta).
Crum, H. 1993. A lichenologist's view of lichen manna. Contributions to the University of Michigan Herbarium 19: 293-306. Page 295.

Bryoria HUMAN FOOD
Area: Anaheim Lake, British Columbia
Notes: reported (pers. comm., 1994) from David Friesan, who lives with the Ulkatcho Indian Band, at Anaheim Lake in western British Columbia (east of Bella Coola): "heard from Nancy Turner that Bryoria was edible", put some in the lake overnight, weighted down with a rock. In the morning it was covered with fresh-water shrimp, so he made the whole thing into a soup. He has done it again several times since.


Bryoria capillaris DYE SOURCE Haisla and Hanaksiala
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Burned into black powder to make paint for wood. Ref. Compton, B.D., 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Bryoria fremontii MISC. HUMAN USE Interior Salish
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Interior Salish peoples mixed Bryoria fremontii with mud and used it to chink log cabins.
Turner, N.J.. 1996. . personal communication.

Bryoria fremontii DYE SOURCE Coast Salish
Area: Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada
Notes: (Alectoria jubata) provided yellow colouring
Turner, N.C.; Bell, M.A.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Is.. Econ. Bot. 25(1): 62-104. Page 68.

Bryoria fremontii FIBER Lillooet (Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: used (with Alectoria sarmentosa) for weaving clothing, such as ponchos and footwear. Not considered high quality: used only be poorer people who couldn't get skins. Usually interwoven with stronger fibrous material such as silverberry bark.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Bryoria fremontii FIBER Thompson
Area: British Columbia
Notes: used by the Thompson and probably some others Interior Salish groups for making clothing. Not considered a high quality material, usually used by poorer people who could not obtain skins. Absorbent, so impractical in wet weather. Long strands cleaned and twisted together in loose coils, laid out in form of garment, and twined together with fibers such as Indian hemp or silverberry bark.
Turner, NJ. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Econ. Bot. 31: 461-470. Page 466.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Blackfoot
Area: western Montana
Notes: famine food in Western Montana.
Johnston, A. 1970. Blackfoot Indian utilization of the northwestern Great Plains. Econ. Bot. 24: 301-323. Page 305.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Coast Salish
Area: Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada
Notes: (Alectoria jubata) may have been eaten by the Vancouver Island Salish.
Turner, N.C.; Bell, M.A.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Is.. Econ. Bot. 25(1): 62-104. Page 68.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Coeur d'Alene (Salishan)
Area: mountain states (Rockies)
Notes: Black moss (Alectoria) cooked in pits until it became a pit, cut with bone knives. Cooked alone long ago; later with wild onions.
Teit, J.A.; Boas, F.. 1928. The Salishan tribes of the western plateaus. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 45: 23-396. Page 92-3.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Flathead
Notes: considered a luxury item, especially when mixed with camas, dried, and powdered. About 25 pounds/person used annually.
Turner, NJ. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Econ. Bot. 31: 461-470. Page 466.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Indians in the Okanagan
Area: Okanagan, British Columbia, Canada
Notes: Franchere found famine in a native village in 1814: "That is what often happens to these poor people, when their hunting expeditions have not been successful! Their principal food then consists only of pine-moss, which, by cooking, they reduce to a sort of gelatinous substance or black paste, thick enough to take the shape of bread or biscuits. I that the curiosity to taste some of this bread and I thought I had put a piece of soap in my mouth. However, people who had eaten this paste told me that it is quite good when cooked a while and taken with meat."
Anderson, J.R.. 1925. Trees and Shrubs, Food, Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of British Columbia. C.F. Banfield. Page 138.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Indians on Columbia River
Area: Columbia River, OR/WA
Notes: Bearded moss, (Alectoria jubata) "The Indians residing on the Columbia River, according to Dr. Morse in his report on Indian affairs to the War Department for 1822, subsist in summer on a kind of bread made of the long, hair-like lichen which grows on the spruce-fir tree, and which resembles spiders' webs in fineness. To prepare it for food, it is gathered from the tree, laid in heaps, sprinkled with water, and then left for some time to ferment. It is next rolled up into balls as large as a man's head, and baked for an hour in ovens in the earth. When taken out it is fit for use, but it is neither palatable nor nutritious."
Palmer, E. 1870. Food Products of the North American Indians. USDA Annual Report : 404-428. Page 424.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Klamath
Area: Oregon
Notes: (Alectoria fremontii) sometimes used in former times as a famine food.
Coville, FC. 1897. Notes on the plants used by the Klamath Indians of Oregon. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herbarium 5: 87-105. Page 87.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Northern California Indians
Area: northern California
Notes: "a black moss (Alectoria Fremontii) called "Wa-kamwa" in Oregon, no known California name. It was dried, ground and made into soup. It usually grew on conifers, but was said to taste like acorns."
Murphy, E.V.A.. 1959. Indian Uses of Native Plants. Mendocino Co. Historical Soc.. Page 17.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: "After babies were weaned they were given a mixture of saskatoon berry juice and a 'syrup' of boiled black tree lichen." (Gabriel 1954)
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 14.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: formerly gathered in large quantities.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 10.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: "It was believed that pregnant women should not eat this lichen because it would make their babies dark." (Lerman 1952)
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 14.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: tastes different when growing on different species of trees.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 10.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: Available all year: usually gathered in late summer or early fall.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 10.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: [thorough description of harvesting (now by cutting whole tree with power saw, formerly with poles) cleaning, and cooking (baking in pits with berries or bulbs). Illustrated.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 10.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Sanpoil-Nespelem (Okanagan)
Notes: "one of the best liked of all vegetable products" (Ray, 1932).
Turner, NJ. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Econ. Bot. 31: 461-470. Page 466.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Secwepemc
Area: Salmon Arm, British Columbia
Notes: raw thallus eaten, only as famine food in times of extreme hunger.
Turner, N.J.; Davis, A.. 1993. "When everything was scarce": the role of plants as famine foods in northwestern North America.. Journal of Ethnobiology 13 (2): 171-201. Page 189.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Secwepemc
Area: Salmon Arm, British Columbia
Notes: raw thallus chewed as thirst quencher.
Turner, N.J.; Davis, A.. 1993. "When everything was scarce": the role of plants as famine foods in northwestern North America.. Journal of Ethnobiology 13 (2): 171-201. Page 189.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Thompson Indians
Area: British Columbia
Notes: "whole plant, a true lichen, is cooked and eaten."
Teit, JA. 1930. The ethnobotany of the Thompson tribe of British Columbia. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 45: 441-522. Page 482.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Thompson Indians
Area: British Columbia
Notes: camas sometimes mixed with (Alectoria jubata).
Teit, JA. 1930. The ethnobotany of the Thompson tribe of British Columbia. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 45: 441-522. Page 481.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Wailaki
Area: California
Notes: used as food during times of famine.
Chesnut (Chestnut), V.K.. . Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. : 299-300. Page 300.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD Wailaki
Area: California
Notes: used as food during times of famine.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 8.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD list
Area: Pacific Northwest (see NW Coast)
Notes: groups known to have used Bryoria fremontii as food: Carrier, Chilcotin (not confirmed), Coast Tsimshian, Coeur d'Alene, Columbia-Wenatchi, Flathead-Kalispel-Spokane, Gitksan, Klamath, Kootenay, Lilloet, Nez Perce, Okanagan, Shaptin (not confirmed), Sekani (not confirmed), Shasta, Shuswap, Thompson, Halkomelem (Upper Stalo), Wailaki, Wishram.
Turner, NJ. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Econ. Bot. 31: 461-470. Page 463.

Bryoria fremontii HUMAN FOOD list: see notes
Area: Pacific Northwest (see NW Coast)
Notes: used as food or emergency food by: Plateau Culture Area: Carrier, Gitksan, Chilcotin, Kootenay, Lillooet, Okanagan-Colville, Shuswap, Nlaka'pamun (Thompson) coastal groups: Coast Tsimshian, Upper Halkomelem Alaska: Lime Village Tanaina (lichen boiled and eaten with fish, grease, or berries.
Kuhnlein, H.V.; Turner, N.J.. 1991. Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Page 34.

Bryoria fremontii MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: "Fresh lichen dried, mixed with grease, and rubbed on navel of newborn baby." (to prevent infection -- biblio.no 4708)
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 14.

Bryoria fremontii MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Nez Perce
Area: Great Basin
Notes: Nez Perce believed it to be good for upset stomach, indigestion, and diarrhoea (Hart, 1976).
Turner, NJ. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Econ. Bot. 31: 461-470. Page 466.

Bryoria fremontii TRADITIONAL MYTHOLOGY Okanagan
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: lichen originated from the hair braid of Coyote. In one version (Mourning Dove 1933), "Coyote and his son had captured some swans which were pretending to be dead. After tying his son to the birds, Coyote climbed a pine tree to get the pitch-top for kindling a fire. Just as he reached the top the swans 'came to life' and started to fly. Coyote jumped, but his long hair braid caught fast on a branch of the tree. He swung there helplessly while the swans flew off with his son still tied to them.... Coyote finally took his flint knife and chopped off his hair braid. Dropping to the ground, he looked up at his hair dangling from the branch and said, You shall not be wasted my valuable hair. After this you shall be gathered by the people. The old women will make you into food.'"
Turner, NJ. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Econ. Bot. 31: 461-470. Page 2440.

Bryoria fremontii TRADITIONAL MYTHOLOGY Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: Coyote myth, additional sources
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 14.

Bryoria glabra DYE SOURCE Haisla and Hanaksiala
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Burned into black powder to make paint for wood. Ref. Compton, B.D., 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Bryoria sp. HUMAN FOOD Nez Perce
Area: Great Basin
Notes: Lewis and Clark report (Alectoria sp.) boiled and eaten.
Spindin, H.J.. 1908. The Nez Perce Indians. Amer. Anth. Assoc. Memoirs 2(3): 165-276.

Bryoria sp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Atsugewi (Pit River)
Area: northern California
Notes: "Black moss, applied as a poultice, was used for reducing swellings. The moss was taken from pine trees, dried, and pounded up. It was then boiled, or sometimes was used dry."
Garth, TW. 1953. Atsugewi ethnography. Anth. Records. UC Press. Page 140.

Bryoria spp. FIBER Coast Salish
Area: British Columbia
Notes: source of yellow dye.
Turner, NJ. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Econ. Bot. 31: 461-470. Page 466.

Bryoria trichodes DYE SOURCE Haisla and Hanaksiala
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Burned into black powder to make paint for wood. Ref. Compton, B.D., 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Bryoria trichodes americana MEDICINE, ABSORBENT FIBER Chugach Eskimo
Area: Port Graham, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska
Notes: (Alectoria americana) collected in quantity and piled on a sick person in the steam bath to hold the heat on his body.
Wennekens, AJ. 1985. Traditional Plant Usage by Chugach Natives around Prince William Sound and on the Lower Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. M.A. Thesis. University of Alaska, Anchorage. Page 39.

Bryoria tricodes americana MEDICINE, ABSORBENT FIBER Chugach Eskimo
Area: Port Graham, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska
Notes: (Alectoria americana) used to staunch the blood from a wound.
Wennekens, AJ. 1985. Traditional Plant Usage by Chugach Natives around Prince William Sound and on the Lower Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. M.A. Thesis. University of Alaska, Anchorage. Page 39.

Bryoria? or Alectoria? DYE SOURCE Lummi
Area: northwest Washington
Notes: yarn colors for blankets: dark green derived from "a slender tree fungus usually found hanging from the boughs of fir and cedar trees in strings"
Stern, BJ. 1934. The Lummi Indians of Northwest Washington. Columbia Univ. Press. Page 89.

Buellia cf. subsoriroides DYE SOURCE India
Area: Garhwal Himalaya, India
Notes: Yields an orange dye. Herdsmen spit saliva on lichen on rocks to make a paste that they apply to their fingertips and palms to make designs on the skin.
Brij Lal; Upreti, D.K.. 1995. Ethnobotanical notes on three Indian lichens. Lichenologist 27(1): 77-79. Page 79.

Cetraria aculeata DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Scotland and Canary Islands
Notes: red-brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 84.

Cetraria ericetorum HUMAN FOOD Western Eskimo
Area: near Bethel, Alaska
Notes: (Cetraria crispa): "These gray green plants were chopped up and added to various types of soups for flavoring, but there was no other use known." [identification accurate?]
Oswalt, WH. 1957. A Western Eskimo ethnobotany. Anthropological Papers of the Univ. of Alaska 6(1): 16-36. Page 21.

Cetraria ericetorum subsp. ericetorum HUMAN FOOD Inuit/Yup'ik
Area: Alaska and western Canada
Notes: (Cetraria crispa) used as a soup condiment.
Wilson, M.R.. 1978. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian J. Anthropology VIII (2-4): 180-196. Page 183.

Cetraria islandica FED TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS Sweden
Area: Malung, Dalarna, Sweden
Notes: fed to pigs, mainly during World War II.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD
Area: Europe
Notes: carbohydrates lichenin and isolichenin easily form a gel -- used in [custard-like] desserts.
Airaksinen, M.M.; Peura, P.; Ala-Fossi-Salokangas, L.; Antere, S.; Lukkarinin, J.; Saikkonen, M.; Stenback, F.. 1986. Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18: 273-296. Page 279.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD
Area: Europe
Notes: traditionally soaked in basic solution to decrease lichen acids. Two percent solution "(or thick enough that a potato would float)" [of] birch ash.
Airaksinen, M.M.; Peura, P.; Ala-Fossi-Salokangas, L.; Antere, S.; Lukkarinin, J.; Saikkonen, M.; Stenback, F.. 1986. Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18: 273-296. Page 279.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD
Area: Europe
Notes: fed to mice to determine toxicity. At 50% concentration, untreated, mice died within 6 days. With ash-soaking and cooking of lichen, mice died during 3rd or 4th week.
Airaksinen, M.M.; Peura, P.; Ala-Fossi-Salokangas, L.; Antere, S.; Lukkarinin, J.; Saikkonen, M.; Stenback, F.. 1986. Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18: 273-296. Page 286.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD Norway
Area: Norway
Notes: "... in Norway during the years of bad harvest from 1807 to 1814, dried Iceland moss (Cetraria islandica) was used to supplement flour. ... The lichen was soaked in lye (aqueous extract of fresh wood ash) for 24 hr, which presumably neutralized the lichen acids. It was then dried and blended with grain before being ground into flour. Unfermented flat breads or porridge were usually made from the flour."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD Russia
Area: arctic/subarctic Eurasia
Notes: method for making glucose "molasses" developed during World War II (in 1934-3) in former Soviet Union because beet sugar scarce and potatoes and grain used for military purposes. Syrup with brown tinge and caramel flavor. Glucose yield 78% of dry weight.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 385.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD Scandinavia
Area: Scandinavia
Notes: "peasantry of Iceland, Norway and Sweden powder it and mix it with the flour of various cereals and mashed potatoes, from which an 'uncommonly palatable and healthful bread is prepared.'"
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 20.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD Scandinavia
Area: Scandinavia
Notes: "The hardened jelly of this lichen was often mixed with lemon juice, sugar, chocolate, almonds, etc." Ref. Dannfelt, H.J., 1917. Kungl. Lantbrukssakad. Tidskr. 6: 483-498.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD Scandinavia
Area: Iceland and Scandinavia
Notes: said to prevent "Iceland scurvy."
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 20.

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD Sweden
Area: Varmland, Sweden
Notes: substitute for bread during hard times.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Cetraria islandica HUMAN FOOD Sweden
Area: Vilhelmina, Lappland
Notes: "during the 1900s, Cetraria islandica was used so extensively for bread that it became scarce and picking it became forbidden unless it was to be used for human consumption."
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY
Notes: "The only officinal lichen to-day [1904] is Cetraria islandica, a decoction of which is recommended as a tonic for convalescents."
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 24.

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: "Significant amounts of Iceland moss Cetraria islandica are still sold annually in European pharmacies for the home concoction of herbal tonics and laxatives."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 192.

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: "a light diet for invalids, and a mild tonic. Phthisis, chronic catarrh, dyspepsia, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery."
Lindley, J. 1849. Medical and Oeconomical Botany. Bradbury and Evans, London. Page 21.

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Notes: "A number of companies produce pastilles and pills for sore throats made from [Cetraria islandica] or from the beard lichen Usnea."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 192.

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY France
Area: Ubaue Valley, Alpes de Haut Provence Departement, France
Notes: decoction used as pectoral, emollient.
Novaretti, R.; Lemordant, D.. 1990. Plants in the traditional medicine of the Ubaye Valley.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 30: 1-34. Page 12.

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Italy
Area: Venezia Giulia region (northeast Italy)
Notes: "reconstituent after tuberculosis, anticatarrhal" ("present traditional use")
Lokar, L.C.; Poldini, L.. 1988. Herbal remedies in the traditional medicine of the Venezia Giulia Region (north east Italy).. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22: 231-278. Page 234.

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Sweden
Area: Ostersund
Notes: used to treat asthma.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Sweden
Area: Vilhelmina, Lappland, Sweden
Notes: used to treat diabetes, nephritis, lung diseases, and wasting diseases.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Sweden
Area: Varmland, Sweden
Notes: thought to be effective treatment for whooping cough and colds.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Cetraria islandica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Sweden and Finland
Area: Sweden and Finland
Notes: sold at present [1986] in drugstores and "'natural food'" stores, recommended for use as an expectorant, appetizer and roborant and to "soften the gut contents."
Airaksinen, M.M.; Peura, P.; Ala-Fossi-Salokangas, L.; Antere, S.; Lukkarinin, J.; Saikkonen, M.; Stenback, F.. 1986. Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18: 273-296. Page 279.

Cetraria islandica TANNING HIDES
Notes: used on a small scale for tanning hides.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 405.

Cetrariellaa delisei FUEL/TINDER Inuit
Area: mouth of Black River, Northwest Territories, Canada
Notes: (Cetraria delisei) gathered for cooking fuel. Burned with a resinous flame. (Personal observation, 1959)
Thomson, JW. 1984. American Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York. Page 78.

Note: all lichens listed below as "Cladina" are now in the genus Cladonia.

Cladina mitis HUMAN FOOD Russia
Area: arctic/subarctic Eurasia
Notes: method for making glucose "molasses" developed during World War II (in 1934-3) in former Soviet Union because beet sugar scarce and potatoes and grain used for military purposes. (Cladonia mitis) syrup bitter so "better applied to the production of alcohol or as a medium for growing food yeasts" than used as syrup. Glucose yield 75% of dry weight.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 385.

Cladina rangiferina MISC. HUMAN USE Sweden
Area: Sweden
Notes: (Cladonia rangiferina) and other lichens used to make brandy. Industry growing near Stockholm in 1883, closed in 1884 because local lichen supplies exhausted.
Smith, A.L.. 1921. Lichens. Chapter X. Economical and technical. Cambridge Univ. Press. Page 411.

Cladina rangiferina MISC. HUMAN USE prehistoric cave dwellers
Area: Germany
Notes: (Cladonia rangiferina) excavated from prehistoric cave dwellings among bones of various animals.
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 19.

Cladina rangiferina DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: some parts of Europe
Notes: iron-red dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 96.

Cladina rangiferina HUMAN FOOD French fur traders
Area: Quebec, perhaps beyond
Notes: (Claydonia rangiferina) sometimes used as a tea by French fur traders when provisions exhausted. Ref. Kalm, P., 1772.
Sturtevant, E.L.. 1919. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. in Hedrick, UP, eds. . State of New York, Department of Agriculture J.B. Lyon Co. State Printers, Albany). Page 177.

Cladina rangiferina HUMAN FOOD Norway
Area: Norway
Notes: (Cladonia rangiferina) sometimes eaten by the people of Norway; crisp and agreeable.
Sturtevant, E.L.. 1919. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. in Hedrick, UP, eds. . State of New York, Department of Agriculture J.B. Lyon Co. State Printers, Albany). Page 177.

Cladina rangiferina MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Ojibwa
Area: Great Lakes
Notes: newborn baby bathed in water in which reindeer moss (Cladonia rangiferina) had been boiled.
Vogel, VJ. 1970. American Indian Medicine. U. of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Page 236.

Cladina spp. MISC. HUMAN USE Sweden
Area: Sweden
Notes: placed between storm window and permanent window in older houses.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 417.

Cladina spp. MISC. HUMAN USE Sweden
Area: Sweden
Notes: placed between storm window and permanent window. Personal communication from Paula DePriest and Andrea Gargas, who were told this by young men on a Swedish train.


Cladina spp. FED TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS Inland Dena'ina
Area: Alaska n. of Cook Inlet
Notes: fed to dogs, especially in times of food shortage.
Kari, PR. 1987. Tanaina Plantlore. US Nat. Park Service, Alaska Region. Page 176.

Cladina spp. HUMAN FOOD Inland Dena'ina
Area: Alaska n. of Cook Inlet
Notes: dry lichen smashed, boiled or soaked in hot water until soft. Eaten plain or preferably mixed with berries, fish eggs, or grease. Reportedly boiled with caribou blood for food.
Kari, PR. 1987. Tanaina Plantlore. US Nat. Park Service, Alaska Region. Page 176.

Cladina spp. HUMAN FOOD Inland Dena'ina
Area: Alaska n. of Cook Inlet
Notes: eaten from caribou stomachs. Separated from grass, stirred with oil. "The word 'teniyash,' which means 'increase' is sung while the mixture is stirred so that it will rise and become light.
Kari, PR. 1987. Tanaina Plantlore. US Nat. Park Service, Alaska Region. Page 176.

Cladina spp. HUMAN FOOD Labrador Eskimo
Area: Labrador
Notes: (caribou moss) used in times of starvation. "...contain enough nourishment to sustain life."
Freeman, MMR. 1967. An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo. Arctic 20(3): 154-175. Page 34.

Cladina spp. HUMAN FOOD list
Area: North America
Notes: caribou stomach contents eaten: Inuit: Igloolik, Copper, Caribou, Netsilik, Baffin Island, Nuamiut, Labrador, Polar Chipewyan
Kuhnlein, H.V.; Turner, N.J.. 1991. Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Page 38.

Cladina spp. TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Inland Dena'ina
Area: Alaska n. of Cook Inlet
Notes: boiled, juice drunk as medicine for diarrhea.
Kari, PR. 1987. Tanaina Plantlore. US Nat. Park Service, Alaska Region. Page 176.

Cladina spp. MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Aleut
Area: Alaska
Notes: (Reindeer moss, Cladonia spp.) taken as tea for internal chest pains. Hunters who are climbing hills eat it to maintain their wind.
Smith, GW. 1973. Arctic Pharmacognosia. Arctic 26(4): -333. Page 328.

Cladina stellaris DECORATION Central Europe
Area: Central Europe
Notes: "Over 2000 tonnes of Cladina stellaris are picked annually in Scandinavia and exported to Central Europe for" use as grave decorations.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 188.

Cladina stellaris DECORATION Finland
Area: Finland
Notes: harvested for use in wreaths, floral decorations, and architect's models. During 1970-75 about 3000 tonnes exported per year, mostly to Germany. Trained inspectors from Finnish Forestry Board enforce quality control act of 1931.
Kauppi, M. 1979. The exploitation of Cladonia stellaris in Finland. Lichenologist 11 (1): 85-89. Page 85.

Cladina stellaris DECORATION Germany
Area: Germany
Notes: 2000-3000 tonnes collected by the Association of Finnish Lichen Exporters used in Germany mainly for Christmas and graveyard wreaths, also model building and decorations.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Cladina stellaris HUMAN FOOD Russia
Area: arctic/subarctic Eurasia
Notes: method for making glucose "molasses" developed during World War II (in 1934-3) in former Soviet Union because beet sugar scarce and potatoes and grain used for military purposes. (Cladonia alpestris) syrup bitter so "better applied to the production of alcohol or as a medium for growing food yeasts" than used as syrup. Glucose yield 74% of dry weight.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 385.

Cladina stellaris TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: (Cladonia alpestris) used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 112.

Cladina stellaris MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Russia
Area: Primorye and South Sakhalin ("Soviet Far East")
Notes: (Cladonia alpestris) used in powdered form to treat wounds. Tested for antibacterial activity. Negative.
Moskalenko, S.A.. 1986. Preliminary screening of far-eastern ethnomedicinal plants for antibacterial activity.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 15: 321-259. Page 234.

Cladina stellaris MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Woods Cree (Nihithawak)
Area: east-central Saskatchewan
Notes: (Cladina alpestris): decoction imbibed to expel intestinal worms; dried, powdered lichen used in winter for the same purpose.
Leighton, A.L.. 1985. Wild plant use by the Woods Cree (Nihithawak) of East-Central Saskatchewan. Nat. Mus. of Man, Mercury Series, Can. Ethnol. Serv. 101: . Page 19.

Cladonia chlorophaea, + MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: whole plants boiled, decoction used to wash sores which were slow to heal.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 15.

Cladonia coccifera s.l. DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Cladonia coccifera) yields red-purple dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 96.

Cladonia fimbriata DYE SOURCE
Notes: red dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 96.

Cladonia gracilis DYE SOURCE
Notes: ash-green dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 96.

Cladonia gracilis TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 112.

Cladonia miniata DYE SOURCE ?
Area: Brazil
Notes: sometimes used for tinting baskets or mats.
Mors, WB. 1966. Useful Plants of Brazil. Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco. Page 57.

Cladonia pyxidata DYE SOURCE
Notes: ash-green dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 96.

Cladonia pyxidata MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Cenomyce pyxidata) used to treat "hooping-cough" and as a febrifuge.
Lindley, J. 1849. Medical and Oeconomical Botany. Bradbury and Evans, London. Page 18.

Cryptothecia rubrocinta DYE SOURCE ?
Area: Brazil
Notes: (Chiodecton sanguineum) dye source.
Mors, WB. 1966. Useful Plants of Brazil. Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco. Page 57.

Dermatocarpon miniatum DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: some parts of Europe
Notes: ash-green dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 125.

Dictyonema sp. HALLUCINOGEN Waorani
Area: Eastern Ecuador
Notes: last used ca. 1900, but formerly used in shamanistic ritual. Caused severe headaches and confusion. Very rare.
Davis, EW; Yost, JA. 1983. Novel hallucinogens from eastern Ecuador. Botanical Museum Leaflets (Peabody Museum) 29 (3): 291-295.

Dictyonema sp. MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Waorani
Area: Eastern Ecuador
Notes: reported to cause sterility; may be put into a child's drink to cause barrenness.
Davis, EW; Yost, JA. 1983. Novel hallucinogens from eastern Ecuador. Botanical Museum Leaflets (Peabody Museum) 29 (3): 291-295.

Evernia mesomorpha PERFUME
Notes: "used in modern [1950] perfumes and cosmetics."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 414.

Evernia prunastri HUMAN FOOD Egypt
Area: Egypt
Notes: consignments from Greek islands to Alexandria reported by Forskal in 19th century.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Evernia prunastri HUMAN FOOD Egypt
Area: Egypt
Notes: imported into Egypt by the shipload and mixed in bread. (Ref. Forskal)
Sturtevant, E.L.. 1919. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. in Hedrick, UP, eds. . State of New York, Department of Agriculture J.B. Lyon Co. State Printers, Albany). Page 266.

Evernia prunastri HUMAN FOOD Turkey
Area: Turkey
Notes: Turks recorded as using for jelly. Ref. Dannfelt, H.J., 1917. Kungl. Lantbrukssakad. Tidskr. 6: 483-498.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Evernia prunastri HUMAN FOOD ancient Egyptians
Area: Egypt
Notes: ancient Egyptians used in making bread.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Evernia prunastri MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea (Evernia furfuracea) and Hypogymnia physodes (Parmelia physodes) main ingredients of 15th century drug "Lichen quercinus virdes."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 400.

Evernia prunastri PERFUME
Notes: "collected in central mountain ranges of Europe, the Piedmont of Italy, and the forests of Czechoslovakia and Herzegovina." Also Yugoslavia.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 414.

Evernia prunastri PERFUME
Notes: "used in modern [1950] perfumes and cosmetics."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 414.

Evernia prunastri PERFUME
Notes: reharvested every 1-5 years for perfume use.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Evernia prunastri PERFUME Yugoslavia
Area: Yugoslavia
Notes: "In Yugoslavia, Evernia is collected with the help of scrapers from trunks and branches of the oak forests in the mountains, where cloud seems to result in rapid lichen growth." 4900-5200 tonnes/year
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 193.

Everniastrum HUMAN FOOD India
Area: India
Notes: "In India, Kubal Garam Masala, a curry additive, includes a high proportion of various Parmeliaceae (especially Parmotrema and (Cetrariastrum) species) as well as Ramalina and Usnea. .... In addition, the above lichens are also sold loose and added to curry as a bulking agent with mild preservative properties. The amount of material collected for these purposes places a heavy burden on the diminishing lichen flora of the Indian subcontinent (M.R.D. Seaward, pers. comm.)."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 190.

Everniastrum cirrhatum DYE SOURCE
Area: Peru
Notes: Parmelia cirrhatum): beige-yellow dye.
Antunez de Mayolo, K.K.. 1989. Peruvian Natural Dye Plants. Econ. Bot. 43(2): 181-191. Page 188.

Everniastrum cirrhatum HUMAN FOOD Lepchas and Nepalis
Area: Sakyong Valley, North Sikkim
Notes: boiled and liquid removed. Remaining lichen fried and eaten as a vegetable.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 230.

Flavocetraria cucullata HUMAN FOOD Inuit/Yup'ic
Area: Alaska and western Canada
Notes: (Cetraria cucullata) used as condiment for fish or duck soup.
Wilson, M.R.. 1978. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian J. Anthropology VIII (2-4): 180-196. Page 188.

Flavocetraria cucullata HUMAN FOOD Western Eskimo
Area: near Bethel, Alaska
Notes: (Cetraria cucullata) added for flavoring to soups of fresh fish or ducks.
Oswalt, WH. 1957. A Western Eskimo ethnobotany. Anthropological Papers of the Univ. of Alaska 6(1): 16-36. Page 21.

Flavocetraria nivalis FED TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Cetraria nivalis) sometimes collected for food along with C. islandica.
Airaksinen, M.M.; Peura, P.; Ala-Fossi-Salokangas, L.; Antere, S.; Lukkarinin, J.; Saikkonen, M.; Stenback, F.. 1986. Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18: 273-296. Page 278.

Flavocetraria nivalis DYE SOURCE
Notes: (Cetraria nivalis) yields violet dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 85.

Flavocetraria nivalis HUMAN FOOD Russia
Area: arctic/subarctic Eurasia
Notes: method for making glucose "molasses" developed during World War II (in 1934-3) in former Soviet Union because beet sugar scarce and potatoes and grain used for military purposes. (Cetraria nivalis) syrup almost colorless with caramel flavor. Glucose yield 71% of dry weight.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 385.

Flavocetraria nivalis HUMAN FOOD Scandinavia
Area: Scandinavia
Notes: (Cetraria nivalis) occasionally used like C. islandica to make broth.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Flavocetraria nivalis MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Qollahuaya (Callawaya) Andeans (subgroup of Aymara)
Area: Province Bautista Saavedra, midwestern Bolivia @ Peruvian border
Notes: (Cetraria nivalis), "beard of the rock" steeped in boiling water. Tea drunk as cardio-pulmonary tonic for altitude sickness and heart attacks.
Bastien, J.W.. 1983. Pharmacopeia of the Qollahuaya Andeans. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8: 97-111. Page 103.

Flavoparmelia caperata DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Isle of Man
Notes: (Parmelia caperata) yields orange-brown to yellow dye.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Flavoparmelia caperata MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Tarahumar
Area: uplands of northern Mexico
Notes: (Parmelia caperata) is common on exposed rocks: dried, crushed, and dusted upon burns.
Pennington, C.W.. 1963. The Tarahumar of Mexico. Univ of Utah Press. Page 193.

Flavopunctelia soredica DYE SOURCE Navajo
Area: New Mexico (?)
Notes: "flesh-color" dye.
Suminski, R.. 1994. . personal letter (species determinations by J. Marsh).

Heterodermia diademata MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Nepalese of Chaunje Baste, Sikkim
Area: Chaunje Baste, nr Gangtok, Sikkim
Notes: applied as paste to cuts and injuries to protect from water and infection.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 230.

Hypogymnia physodes DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Scandinavia, Scotland
Notes: (Parmelia physodes) yields brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Hypogymnia physodes HUMAN FOOD Forest Potawatomi
Area: Great Lakes
Notes: (Parmelia physodes) collected from spruce trees. Used in soup. Swells somewhat and has a pleasant flavor.
Smith, HH. 1933. Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 7 (1): 68. Page 68.

Hypogymnia physodes MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea (Evernia furfuracea) and Hypogymnia physodes (Parmelia physodes) main ingredients of 15th century drug "Lichen quercinus virdes."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 400.

Hypogymnia physodes MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Forest Potawatomi
Area: Great Lakes
Notes: (Parmelia physodes) collected from spruce trees. Cure for constipation. Eaten from the trees while in the woods, but usually soaked or boiled until it swelled somewhat.
Smith, HH. 1933. Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 7 (1): 68. Page 68.

Letharia sp. USE AS POISON Achomawi
Area: California
Notes: "The principal ingredient for the poison used for the stone arrow tips was the yellow lichen (Evernia) which grows on pine and fir trees in the mountains. The arrow points were embedded in masses of the wet lichen and allowed to remain an entire year. Rattlesnake venom was sometimes added."
Merriam, CH. 1967. Ethnological notes on Northern and Southern California Indian tribes. Univ. of Calif. Archeol. Survey Report 68 (II): 225. Page 167-256.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Athapaskan
Area: British Columbia
Notes: used by this group and virtually all other Interior groups to yield brilliant yellow dye.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Blackfoot
Area: Alberta
Notes: used by this group and virtually all other Interior groups to yeld brilliant yellow dye.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Blackfoot
Area: southwestern Alberta foothills
Notes: (Evernia vulpina) used as dye: reported by Peter Fidler in 1792 as an excellent yellow dye for porcupine quills.
Johnston, A. 1970. Blackfoot Indian utilization of the northwestern Great Plains. Econ. Bot. 24: 301-323. Page 305.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Blackfoot
Area: mountain states (Rockies)
Notes: (Evernia vulpina) used as dye.
Johnston, A. 1970. Blackfoot Indian utilization of the northwestern Great Plains. Econ. Bot. 24: 301-323. Page 305.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Cheyenne
Area: Great Plains
Notes: (Evernia vulpina) boiled in water; articles steeped in the liquid are dyed yellowish green.
Grinell, GB. 1905. Some Cheyenne plant medicines. Amer. Anth. n.s. 7: 37-43. Page 43.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Chilkat Tlingit
Area: Alaska
Notes: "The Chilkat get the brilliant yellow for their blankets from a kind of moss called sekhone."
Niblack, AP. 1888. The coast Indians of Southern Alaska & Northern British Columbia. U.S. National Museum Annual Report. Johnson Reprint Corp.. Page 320.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Coast Salish
Area: Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada
Notes: (Evernia vulpina) provided yellow colouring
Turner, N.C.; Bell, M.A.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Is.. Econ. Bot. 25(1): 62-104. Page 68.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Coeur d'Alene (Salishan)
Area: mountain states (Rockies)
Notes: yellow or lemon colored dye obtained by boiling wolf-moss (Evernia vulpina). This lichen was also used as a paint. It was dipped into cold water or applied to a damp surface.
Teit, J.A.; Boas, F.. 1928. The Salishan tribes of the western plateaus. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 45: 23-396. Page 44.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Flathead Salish
Area: Montana
Notes: used by this group and virtually all other Interior groups to yeld brilliant yellow dye.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Hupa
Area: northern California
Notes: used to dye Xerophyllum tenax and sometimes porcupine quills.
Goddard, PE. 1903. Life and Culture of the Hupa. Am. Arch. Eth.. University of California Publications. Page 40.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Hupa
Area: northern California
Notes: used to dye leaves of Xerophyllum tenax and porcupine quills a bright yellow.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Karok
Area: northern inner coast range, CA
Notes: yellow dye for porcupine quills used only in some basket caps.
Schenck, SM; Gifford, EW. 1952. Karok Ethnobotany. UC Publications in Anthropological Records 13 (1): 377. Page 377.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Klamath
Area: northeastern California & southern Oregon
Notes: "For the finer baskets the quills of the porcupine, dyed yellow by means of a yellow moss, probably the widely used (Evernia vulpina) are used."
Barrett, SA. 1910. The Material Culture of the Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians of Northeastern California and Southern Oregon. Univ. of Calif. Press. Page 254.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Klamath
Area: Oregon
Notes: "Porcupine quills obtained from the Modocs are immersed in a decoction of this lichen and take on a beautiful bright yellow permanent stain. These quills are then interwoven into baskets to form any yellow pattern desired." (Evernia vulpina).
Coville, FC. 1897. Notes on the plants used by the Klamath Indians of Oregon. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herbarium 5: 87-105. Page 88.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Kootenay
Area: British Columbia
Notes: used by this group and virtually all other Interior groups to yeld brilliant yellow dye.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Maidu
Area: California
Notes: Porcupine quills dyed yellow by boiling with wolf moss (Evernia vulpina).
Swartz, B.K. Jr.. 1958. A study of the material aspects of Northeastern Maidu basketry. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 19: 67-77. Page 70.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Modoc (Lutuami)
Area: northern California
Notes: used for yellow dye for porcupine quills for basketry decoration.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Northern Cheyenne
Area: Montana
Notes: Boiled in water to make yellow dye for porcupine quills.
Hart, J.A.. 1981. The ethnobotany of the Northern Cheyenne Indians of Montana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 4: 1-55. Page 3.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Northern Paiute (Paviotso)
Area: California
Notes: used for yellow dye.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Okanagan
Area: British Columbia
Notes: used to make a brilliant yellow dyes. Sometimes Oregon grape bark added to the water to intensify color.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 51.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: Boiled in water, alone or with Oregon grape bark, to make yellow dye that was used mainly for basket materials and fibres.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 15.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Okangon (Salishan)
Area: mountain states (Rockies)
Notes: used as paint.
Teit, J.A.; Boas, F.. 1928. The Salishan tribes of the western plateaus. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 45: 23-396. Page 218.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Oweekeno
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Used to make yellow dye. Ref. Compton, B.D. 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Salishan
Area: British Columbia
Notes: used by this group and virtually all other Interior groups to yeld brilliant yellow dye.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Thompson
Area: British Columbia
Notes: used as face and body paint. Dipped lichen in water and brushed on skin or wet the skin and applied the lichen dry.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Thompson Indians
Area: British Columbia
Notes: "yellow dye was obtained from a yellowish lichen, (Evernia vulpina). This was also used to paint either the body, wood, or skins. Some pubescents use it as a face paint by simply dipping it in water or wetting the skin and applying it dry Materials to be used as paints were first mixed with melted deer fat and heated. The fingers or small sticks were used in applying the paint.
Teit, JA. 1930. The ethnobotany of the Thompson tribe of British Columbia. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 45: 441-522. Page 501.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Tlingit
Area: Alaska
Notes: (Evernia vulpina) obtained in trade from the interior used for yellow dye.
Emmons, G.T.; de Laguna, F.; Low, J.. 1991. The Tlingit Indians. U. of Washington Press, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist..

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Tlingit
Area: Alaska
Notes: yellow obtained from (Evernia vulpina) known as saxoli. Most abundant in back of mountain range...procured in trade. Dye made by boiling (moss) in fresh urine of children.
Emmons, G. 1907. The Chilkat Blanket. : .

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Tlingit
Area: Alaska
Notes: yellow obtained from the yellow lichen (Evernia vulpina) by boiling in water.
Emmons, G. 1903. The basketry of the Tlingit. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Memoirs. NY.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Tlingit
Area: Alaska
Notes: obtained in trade from Interior groups to dye spruce-root baskets.
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Wintun
Area: California
Notes: used for yellow dye.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Yuki
Area: California
Notes: thick decoction used as paint, not dye.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Yuki
Area: Mendocino County, California
Notes: thick decoction used as a kind of paint; not used as dye.
Chesnut (Chestnut), V.K.. . Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. : 299-300. Page 300.

Letharia vulpina DYE SOURCE Yurok
Area: northern California
Notes: used for yellow dye.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina FIBER Yuki
Area: California
Notes: used as bedding material.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina FIBER Yuki
Area: Mendocino County, California
Notes: "formerly used to a small extent as bedding material."
Chesnut (Chestnut), V.K.. . Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. : 299-300. Page 300.

Letharia vulpina MAGICAL PROPERTIES Apache
Area: Arizona
Notes: (Evernia vulpina): portion carried carefully in small buckskin bag. [As paint] considered a charm when applied to the face. A cross of this color on the feet enables them to pass their enemies unseen.
Palmer, E.. 1878. Plants used by the Indians of the United States.. Amer. Nat. 12: 593-606,646-656. Page 655.

Letharia vulpina TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Okangon and Thompson (Salishan)
Area: mountain states (Rockies)
Notes: used as medicine.
Teit, J.A.; Boas, F.. 1928. The Salishan tribes of the western plateaus. Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 45: 23-396. Page 294.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Blackfoot
Area: mountain states (Rockies)
Notes: (Evernia vulpina) blackened in fire and rubbed on rash, eczema, and wart sores.
Hellson, JC; Gadd, M. 1974. Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service 19: . Page 76.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: boiled; stronger solution used to wash external sores and wounds.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 15.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Wailaki
Area: Mendocino County, California
Notes: very valuable for drying up running sores and relieving accompanying inflammation.
Chesnut (Chestnut), V.K.. . Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. : 299-300. Page 300.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Wailaki
Area: California
Notes: used to dry up running sores.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Yuki
Area: Mendocino County, California
Notes: very valuable for drying up running sores and relieving accompanying inflammation.
Chesnut (Chestnut), V.K.. . Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. : 299-300. Page 300.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Yuki
Area: California
Notes: used to dry up running sores.
Mead, G.R.. 1972. The ethnobotany of the CA Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses.. Mus. Anth., Occ. Publ. in Anth., Ethnol. Ser. 30. U. Northern CO, Greeley, CO. Page 91.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Blackfoot
Area: mountain states (Rockies)
Notes: infusion of (Evernia vulpina) and marrow was taken for stomach disorders like ulcers.
Hellson, JC; Gadd, M. 1974. Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service 19: . Page 76.

Letharia vulpina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Okanagan-Colville (part of Interior Salish)
Area: interior British Columbia
Notes: boiled and taken in a weak solution for internal problems.
Turner, N.J.; Bouchard, R.; Kennedy, D.I.D.. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia. Page 15.

Letharia vulpina USE AS POISON Scandinavia?
Area: Scandinavia?
Notes: "L. vulpina was dried and ground into a fine powder which should not be breathed in as it could cause swelling of nasal membrane and other hemorrhages. The lichen was added to melted butter or bacon fat. After this fresh reindeer blood and mead was added and the whole mass allowed to solidify. The mixture was put in a portion of reindeer carcass between the skin and muscle. Wolves that ate the bait died within 24 hours."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Letharia vulpina USE AS POISON Sweden
Area: Sweden
Notes: said to have been used to poison wolves, mixed with powdered glass or nux vomica and sprinkled on meat.
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 22.

Lobaria isidiosa TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 59.

Lobaria pulmonaria BREWING (ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES) Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Sticta pulmonaria) used as a substitute for hops.
Lindley, J. 1849. Medical and Oeconomical Botany. Bradbury and Evans, London. Page 20.

Lobaria pulmonaria BREWING (ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES) India (?)
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim (?)
Notes: used for brewing. [This may refer to reports of European/Russian use rather than local use.]
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : . Page 90.

Lobaria pulmonaria BREWING (ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES) Russia
Area: Siberia
Notes: The beer of a certain Siberian monastery which was noted for its peculiar bitterness owed this to (Sticta pulmonaria). [This extract from a discussion of the time period before 1694.]
Schneider, A. 1897. A text-book of general lichenology. Willard N. Clute & Co., Binghamton. Page 5.

Lobaria pulmonaria COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) India
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim
Notes: Hill men use for cleaning hair.
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : . Page 90.

Lobaria pulmonaria DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Scandinavia, Great Britain
Notes: orange-brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 219.

Lobaria pulmonaria HUMAN FOOD Coast Salish
Area: Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada
Notes: (Sticta pulmonaria) may have been eaten by the Vancouver Island Salish.
Turner, N.C.; Bell, M.A.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Is.. Econ. Bot. 25(1): 62-104. Page 68.

Lobaria pulmonaria MAGICAL PROPERTIES Gitksan
Area: around Kitwanga, British Columbia
Notes: name translates to "frog blanket." associated with frogs in spring bathing ritual to bring health and long life.
Gottesfeld, L.M.J.. 1995. . personal communication.

Lobaria pulmonaria TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Gitksan
Area: around Kitwanga, British Columbia
Notes: used to treat arthritis. (40-50 years ago)
Gottesfeld, L.M.J.. 1995. . personal communication.

Lobaria pulmonaria MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY India
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim
Notes: Hill men use it for curing eczema on the head and cleaning hair.
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : . Page 90.

Lobaria pulmonaria MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Sechelt
Area: British Columbia mainland
Notes: "Applied to the faces of children when the peeled, revealing a light-coloured 'patchiness' very much like the lichen itself." Considered very sacred and was specially prepared.
Turner, NJ; Efrat, BS. 1982. Ethnobotany of the Hesquiat Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Cultural Recovery Paper No. 2 : 99. Page 26.

Lobaria pulmonaria MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Hesquiat Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada
Notes: Lichen when growing on hemlock tree used as medicine for coughing up blood. [use adopted after contact with Europeans?? --SDS]
Turner, NJ; Efrat, BS. 1982. Ethnobotany of the Hesquiat Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Cultural Recovery Paper No. 2 : 99. Page 26.

Lobaria pulmonaria MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim
Notes: used for strengthening hair. Remedy for lung troubles, haemorrhages and asthma.
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : . Page 90.

Lobaria pulmonaria PERFUME France
Area: France
Notes: used in perfume, but not in large quantities, because it is rarer than the other lichens used.
Smith, A.L.. 1921. Lichens. Chapter X. Economical and technical. Cambridge Univ. Press. Page 418.

Lobaria pulmonaria TANNING HIDES
Notes: used on a small scale for tanning hides.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 405.

Lobaria pulmonaria TANNING HIDES India
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim
Notes: used for tanning leather.
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : . Page 90.

Lobaria pulmonaria var. meridionalis TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 32.

Lobaria quercizans HUMAN FOOD Menomini
Area: Great Lakes
Notes: (Sticta amplissima): favorite old food of Ojibwa.
Yarnell, RA. 1964. Aboriginal Relationships Between Culture and Plant Life in the Upper Great Lakes Region. Anthropological Papers, University of Michigan. Univ. of Michigan. Page 72.

Lobaria quercizans MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Menomini
Area: Great Lakes
Notes: (Sticta glomulifera) grows on many kinds of trees but gathered only from hard maple or hemlock. Food eaten as a medicine. Stored dried. Put into soups. Highly esteemed for its tonic effect on the system and the blood.
Smith, HH. 1023. Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4 (1): 60. Page 21.

Lobaria quercizans MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Menomini
Area: Great Lakes
Notes: (Sticta glomulifera) grows on many kinds of trees but gathered only from hard maple or hemlock. Food eaten as a medicine, but valued for flavor. Stored dried. Put into soups.
Smith, HH. 1023. Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4 (1): 60. Page 21.

Lobaria retigera TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 59.

Lobaria scrobiculata DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Scotland and England
Notes: brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 219.

Lobaria scrobiculata HUMAN FOOD Yup'ik Eskimo
Area: Kwethluk, near Bethel, Alaska
Notes: "Qelquaq" can be eaten plain, right from the tree.
Jacobson, Anna. 1995. personal communication. : .

Lobaria spp. TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Bella Coola Indians
Area: British Columbia, Canada
Notes: "The entire plant of (Sticta), from certain trees only, was boiled and the decoction taken internally for pains in the stomach and externally as an eyewash and poultice." (ref Smith, 1928 [8720])
Turner, N.J.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6: 193-220.

Lobaria spp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Bella Coola Indians
Area: British Columbia, Canada
Notes: "The entire plant of (Sticta), from certain trees only, was boiled and the decoction used externally as an eyewash and poultice." (ref Smith, 1928 [8720])
Turner, N.J.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6: 193-220.

Lobaria spp. MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Bella Coola Indians
Area: British Columbia, Canada
Notes: "The entire plant of (Sticta), from certain trees only, was boiled and the decoction taken internally for pains in the stomach. (ref Smith, 1928 [8720])
Turner, N.J.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6: 193-220.

Masonhalea richardsonii FUEL/TINDER Eskimo
Area: Alaska
Notes: (Cetraria richardsonii) used for priming wood fires.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 386.

Melanelia acetabulum DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Northern Ireland
Notes: (Parmelia acetabulum): orange-brown dye for wool, Harris Tweed.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Melanelia commixta DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Cetraria fahlunensis) yields red-brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 84.

Melanelia olivacea DYE SOURCE Great Britain
Area: Great Britain
Notes: (Parmelia olivacea) yields brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Melanelia stygia DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Great Britain
Notes: (Parmelia stygia) yields a brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 267.

Nephroma arcticum HUMAN FOOD Inuit/Yup'ik
Area: Alaska and western Canada
Notes: Eaten boiled with fish eggs.
Wilson, M.R.. 1978. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian J. Anthropology VIII (2-4): 180-196. Page 187.

Nephroma arcticum HUMAN FOOD Inuit/Yup'ik
Area: Alaska and western Canada
Notes: Taken as infusion to treat "weakness."
Wilson, M.R.. 1978. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian J. Anthropology VIII (2-4): 180-196. Page 187.

Nephroma arcticum HUMAN FOOD Western Eskimo
Area: near Bethel, Alaska
Notes: uncommon. Stored until winter and then boiled with crushed fish eggs as a food.
Oswalt, WH. 1957. A Western Eskimo ethnobotany. Anthropological Papers of the Univ. of Alaska 6(1): 16-36. Page 30.

Nephroma arcticum MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Western Eskimo
Area: near Bethel, Alaska
Notes: uncommon. Cooked alone in water and fed to a person in weak condition to make him strong. Reported to have been a very effective medicine.
Oswalt, WH. 1957. A Western Eskimo ethnobotany. Anthropological Papers of the Univ. of Alaska 6(1): 16-36. Page 30.

Nephroma parile DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland
Notes: blue dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 247.

Ochrolcehia parella DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: France and Great Britain
Notes: (Lecanora parella): violet dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 210.

Ochrolcehia tartarea DYE SOURCE Sweden and Scotland
Area: Sweden and Scotland
Notes: (Lecanora tartarea): red or crimson dye. Collected in May and June, steeped in stale urine for 3 weeks. Resulting blackish mass is made into cakes and hung up to dry in peat smoke.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 210.

Ochrolechia tartarea DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland
Notes: One person could collect 20-30 lbs. daily, any one locality visited every 5 years.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 411.

Parmelia "saxicola" MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Nisenan (Southern Maidu)
Area: northern California
Notes: "Colic is treated with a tea made from a greenish-gray lichen (Parmelia saxicola) found growing on stones."
Powers, S.. 1874. Aboriginal botany. Proc. of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 373-379. Page 373-379.

Parmelia "saxicola" MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Nisenan (Southern Maidu)
Area: northern California
Notes: "Colic is treated with a tea made from a greenish-gray lichen (Parmelia saxicola) found growing on stones."
Powers, S. 1877. Tribes of California. : 423. Page 423.

Parmelia abessinica HUMAN FOOD India
Area: South Deccan Plateau, esp. Bellary
Notes: Easily available in market; used as food material and as condiment.
Chopra, R.N.; Chopra, I.C.; Handa, K.L.; Kapur, LD. 1958. Indigenous Drugs of India. Academic Publishers, Calcutta & New Delhi. Page 643.

Parmelia abessinica HUMAN FOOD India
Area: India
Notes: used in curry. "Rathipuvvu."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Parmelia abessinica HUMAN FOOD Western Andhara, India
Area: Western Andhara districts, India
Notes: considered to be a delicacy.
Watt, J.M.; Breyer-Brandwijk, M.R.. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southeastern and Eastern Africa.... E. and S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London. Page 1131.

Parmelia abessinica TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Western Andhara, India
Area: Western Andhara districts, India
Notes: used as indigenous medicine.
Watt, J.M.; Breyer-Brandwijk, M.R.. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southeastern and Eastern Africa.... E. and S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London. Page 1131.

Parmelia abessinica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: used in medicine. "Rathipuvvu."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Parmelia kamtschadalis (?) DYE SOURCE India
Area: India
Notes: source of pale rose dye; used in India to print and perfume calico cloth.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Parmelia karatschadalis COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia karatschadalis) used in a preparation for washing the hair.
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmelia karatschadalis TRADITIONAL MEDICINE India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia karatschadalis) properties: "bitter, febrifuge, astringent, relovent, emollient, demulcent, and formerly considered useful as a diuretic; also soporific and sedative. ...used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, spermatorrhoea, amenorrhoea, and dysentery... used as an incense especially to relieve headache.
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmelia karatschadalis MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia karatschadalis) as a poultice, applied to renal and lumbar regions, which causes a copious flow of urine. As a liniment it is applied to head in cases of headaches..... powder is applied to promote healing of wounds."
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmelia nilgherrense HUMAN FOOD India
Area: India
Notes: "Shops and street sellers in the markets of Poona and Aurangabad frequently stock "dagaful" (stone flowers). This is a mixture of (Parmelia tinctorum), P. nilgherrense, (Parmelia retiuculata, and P. sancti-algelia. Ramalina and Usnea sometimes may be included." Principal component of Kabul Garam Masala, a spice mixture which is usually added at the end of cooking.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Parmelia omphalodes DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Scandinavia, Ireland, Scotland
Notes: Much-used dye lichen -- yields "purple, crimson" dye. [Lichen-dye expert Karen Casselman reports that Uphof is mistaken about these colors.]
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Parmelia omphalodes DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland
Notes: source of crottle for Harris tweeds; still used by a few crofters.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Parmelia omphalodes DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland
Notes: "Strictly speaking, 'crottle' is the correct term for two particular lichens, Parmelia omphalodes and Parmelia saxatilis."...."In the past, 'crottle' was used to describe everything from the actual dyes to dye colours."
Casselman, K.D.. 1996. Lichen Dyes: a Source Book. Studio Vista. Page 11.

Parmelia omphalodes DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland
Notes: dye source for Harris tweeds.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Parmelia paraguariensis MISC. HUMAN USE Mauritania
Area: Mauritania
Notes: used as tobacco; imported from several hundred kilometers to the northwest.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Parmelia sancti-algelia HUMAN FOOD India
Notes: "Shops and street sellers in the markets of Poona and Aurangabad frequently stock "dagaful" (stone flowers). This is a mixture of (Parmelia tinctorum), P. nilgherrense, (Parmelia reticulata, and P. sancti-algelia. Ramalina and Usnea sometimes may be included." Principal component of Kabul Garam Masala, a spice mixture which is usually added at the end of cooking.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Parmelia sancti-angeli MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Gond and Oraon tribes
Area: central India
Notes: Ash mixed with mustard or linseed oil to treat ringworm-like skin disease of the neck.
Brij Lal; Upreti, D.K.. 1995. Ethnobotanical notes on three Indian lichens. Lichenologist 27(1): 77-79. Page 78.

Parmelia saxatilis DECORATION England
Area: White Peak area, Derbyshire
Notes: used in mosaics of plant materials composed on wooden trays an displayed for about a week at village wells during well-dressing festivals. Velvety black from displaying underside, gray for backgrounds from upper cortex. Custom probably dates at least from early nineteenth century. Now tourist attractions.
Vickery, A.R.. 1975. The use of lichens in well-dressing. Lichenologist 7: 178-179. Page 178.

Parmelia saxatilis DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: especially Scotland, western Ireland
Notes: orange, yellow, red-brown dye used in Harris tweed. Scent of fabric due to this dye. Lichens usually collected in August, when they are supposed to be richest in dye material.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Parmelia saxatilis DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland
Notes: "Strictly speaking, 'crottle' is the correct term for two particular lichens, Parmelia omphalodes and Parmelia saxatilis."...."In the past, 'crottle' was used to describe everything from the actual dyes to dye colours."
Casselman, K.D.. 1996. Lichen Dyes: a Source Book. Studio Vista. Page 11.

Parmelia saxatilis DYE SOURCE Sweden
Area: Malung, Dalarna, Sweden
Notes: used for dyeing.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Parmelia saxatilis FIBER Inuit/Yup'ic
Area: Alaska and western Canada
Notes: Used to stuff caribou skins for rafts.
Wilson, M.R.. 1978. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian J. Anthropology VIII (2-4): 180-196. Page 190.

Parmelia saxatilis TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 102.

Parmelia saxatilis MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Sweden
Area: Malung, Dalarna, Sweden
Notes: used to take away warts on hands.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Parmelia spp. MISC. HUMAN USE India
Area: India
Notes: crude drug 'chharila', extracted from 3 spp. of Parmelia is sold in Indian bazaars and used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Considered to be a good cephalic snuff.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 229.

Parmelia spp. MISC. HUMAN USE India
Area: India
Notes: crude drug 'chharila', extracted from 3 spp. of Parmelia is sold in Indian bazaars and used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Considered to be aphrodisiac.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 229.

Parmelia spp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: crude drug 'chharila', extracted from 3 spp. of Parmelia is sold in Indian bazaars and used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Powdered drug applied to wounds.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 229.

Parmelia spp. MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: crude drug 'chharila', extracted from 3 spp. of Parmelia is sold in Indian bazaars and used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Carminative and aphrodisiac; has been considered to be useful in dyspepsia, spermatorrhoea, amenorrhoea, calcui, diseases of the blood and heart, stomach disorders, enlarged spleen, bronchitis, bleeding piles, scabies, leprosy, excessive salivation, soreness of the throat, toothache, and pain in general. The smoke of 'chharila' is believed to relieve headache.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 229.

Parmotrema HUMAN FOOD India
Area: India
Notes: "In India, Kubal Garam Masala, a curry additive,includes a high proportion of various Parmeliaceae (especially Parmotrema and (Everniastrum) species) as well as Ramalina and Usnea. .... In addition, the above lichens are also sold loose and added to curry as a bulking agent with mild preservative properties. The amount of material collected for these purposes places a heavy burden on the diminishing lichen flora of the Indian subcontinent (M.R.D. Seaward, pers. comm.)."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 190.

Parmotrema chinense COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia perlata) used in a preparation for washing the hair.
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmotrema chinense MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia perlata) used...[as] a poultice, applied to renal and lumbar regions which causes a copious flow of urine. As a liniment it is applied to head in cases of headaches..... ...powder is applied to promote healing of wounds."
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmotrema chinense MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia perlata) properties: "bitter, febrifuge, astringent, relovent, emollient, demulcent, and formerly considered useful as a diuretic; also soporific and sedative. ...used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, spermatorrhoea, amenorrhoea, and dysentery... used as an incense especially to relieve headache
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmotrema perforatum COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia perforata) used in a preparation for washing the hair.
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmotrema perforatum TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Afghanistan
Area: Kabul, Afghanistan
Notes: (Parmelia perforata) imported for unspecified medicinal use.
Younos, C.; Fleurentin, J.; Notter, D.; Mazars, G.; Mortier, F.; Pelt, J.-M.. 1987. Repertory of drugs and medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Afghanistan.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 20: 245-290. Page 274.

Parmotrema perforatum MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia perforata) used [as] a poultice, applied to renal and lumbar regions which causes a copious flow of urine. As a liniment it is applied to head in cases of headaches..... powder is applied to promote healing of wounds."
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmotrema perforatum MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia perforata) properties: "bitter, febrifuge, astringent, relovent, emollient, demulcent, and formerly considered useful as a diuretic; also soporific and sedative. ...used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, spermatorrhoea, amenorrhoea, and dysentery... used as an incense especially to relieve headache.
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Parmotrema tinctorum HUMAN FOOD India
Area: India
Notes: "Shops and street sellers in the markets of Poona and Aurangabad frequently stock "dagaful" (stone flowers). This is a mixture of (Parmelia tinctorum), P. nilgherrense, (Parmelia retuculata, and P. sancti-algelia. Ramalina and Usnea sometimes may be included." Principal component of Kabul Garam Masala, a spice mixture which is usually added at the end of cooking.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Peltigera aphthosa FIBER Inuit/Yup'ic
Area: Alaska and western Canada
Notes: Used to stuff caribou skins for rafts.
Wilson, M.R.. 1978. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian J. Anthropology VIII (2-4): 180-196. Page 190.

Peltigera aphthosa MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Sweden
Area: Sweden
Notes: (Peltidea aphthosa) boiled in milk as a cure for aphthae.
Lindley, J. 1849. Medical and Oeconomical Botany. Bradbury and Evans, London. Page 21.

Peltigera aphthosa (?) MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Tlingit
Area: Alaska
Notes: "A lichen (probably Peltigera aphthosa) was dried, powdered and applied to the hurt" for burns and scalds.
Emmons, G.T.; de Laguna, F.; Low, J.. 1991. The Tlingit Indians. U. of Washington Press, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.. Page 362.

Peltigera britannica MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: (Peltigera aphthosa) was probably the plant that was used for running sores that were hard to heal. "It was mashed and made in a poultice and was used especially for sores on the leg caused by bruises from walking among rocks." (ref Densmore, 1939)
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 56.

Peltigera britannica MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: (Peltigera aphthosa) was probably the plant that was chewed and eaten as a remedy for tuberculosis.
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 56.

Peltigera canina DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: iron-red dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 270.

Peltigera canina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Peltidea canina) "an imaginary remedy for hydrophobia."
Lindley, J. 1849. Medical and Oeconomical Botany. Bradbury and Evans, London. Page 21.

Peltigera canina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: India
Notes: eaten as a remedy for liver ailments.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 229.

Peltigera canina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim
Notes: "It yields an efficacious medicine used in hydrophobia and jaundice."
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : .

Peltigera membranacea MAGICAL PROPERTIES Kwakiutl
Area: British Columbia: Alert Bay, Fort Rupert, Kingcome Inlet
Notes: "(Peltigera canina) was used as a love charm but how is not known."
Turner, NC; Bell, MA. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Southern Kwakiutl Indians of British Columbia. Econ. Bot. 27 (3): 257-.

Peltigera membranacea TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Hesquiat Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada
Notes: (Peltigera canina) used for some kind of medicine.
Turner, NJ; Efrat, BS. 1982. Ethnobotany of the Hesquiat Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Cultural Recovery Paper No. 2 : 99. Page 26.

Peltigera membranacea TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: (Peltigera canina) used for some kind of medicine by Hesquiat Nootka.
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 55.

Peltigera membranacea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: (Peltigera canina) possibly the plant that had been used to cure a man who could not urinate (or possibly P. aphthosa).
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 55.

Peltigera polydactlya MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Lepchas
Area: Sakyong Valley, North Sikkim
Notes: paste applied to cuts to stop bleeding and as an antiseptic.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 232.

Peltigera sp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Oweekeno
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Mixed with spruce pitch and applied as poultice to wounds. Ref. Compton, B.D. 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Pertusaria amara MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY
Notes: used in cases of intermittent fever. [It is implied that this use was because of its bitter taste, as a replacement for quinine.]
Smith, A.L.. 1921. Lichens. Chapter X. Economical and technical. Cambridge Univ. Press. Page 408.

Pertusaria communis MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: historically used to cure intermittent fever; more useful on men than women.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 399.

Physconia distorta DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Physcia pulverulenta) yields yellow dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 277.

Platismatia glauca DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: some parts of Europe
Notes: (Cetraria glauca) yields a chamois-colored dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 84.

Pseudephebe pubescens DYE SOURCE Haisla and Hanaksiala
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Used to make black paint for wood. Ref. Compton, B.D. 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Pseudevernia furfuracea MISC. HUMAN USE ancient Egypt
Area: Egypt
Notes: (Evernia furfuracea) packed into body cavity of mummies.
Baumann, BB. 1960. The botanical aspects of ancient Egyptian embalming and burial. Econ. Bot. 14(1): 84-104. Page 88.

Pseudevernia furfuracea MISC. HUMAN USE ancient Egypt
Area: Egypt
Notes: found in a Egyptian vase from the 18th Dynasty (1700-1600 B.C.).
Llano, G.A.P.. 1944. Lichens: their biological and economic significance. The Botanical Review 10 (1): 1-65. Page 37.

Pseudevernia furfuracea MISC. HUMAN USE ancient Egyptians
Area: Mideast
Notes: (Evernia furfuracea) used to preserve the odor of spices employed in embalming mummies.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 399.

Pseudevernia furfuracea HUMAN FOOD Egypt
Area: Egypt
Notes: consignments of (Evernia furfuracea) from Greek islands to Alexandria reported by Forstal in 19th century.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Pseudevernia furfuracea HUMAN FOOD ancient Egypt
Area: Egypt
Notes: (Evernia furfuracea) used in breadmaking. [Note: other authors refer to Evernia prunastri for bread.]
Baumann, BB. 1960. The botanical aspects of ancient Egyptian embalming and burial. Econ. Bot. 14(1): 84-104. Page 88.

Pseudevernia furfuracea HUMAN FOOD ancient Egyptians
Area: Egypt
Notes: ancient Egyptians used (Evernia furfuracea) in making bread.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

Pseudevernia furfuracea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Andalucia
Area: Andalucia, Spain
Notes: Common name: musgo (moss). Decoction used to treat respiratory complaints.
Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R.; Martinez-Lirola, M.J.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Molero-Mesa, J.. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany 49 (1): 96-68. Page 97.

Pseudevernia furfuracea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea (Evernia furfuracea) and Hypogymnia physodes (Parmelia physodes) main ingredients of 15th century drug "Lichen quercinus virdes."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 400.

Pseudevernia furfuracea PERFUME
Notes: (Evernia furfuracea) "used in modern [1950] perfumes and cosmetics."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 414.

Pseudocyphellaria aurata DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Great Britain and Scandinavia
Notes: (Sticta aurata) is dye source.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 347.

Pseudocyphellaria aurata MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Malagasy
Area: Ambavaniasy, Madagascar
Notes: Used as a tea to treat indigestion.
Scheidegger, C.. 1998. . personal communication : .

Pseudocyphellaria crocata DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: some parts of Europe
Notes: (Sticta crocata): brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 347.

Punctelia borreri DYE SOURCE Dakota
Area: Missouri River area
Notes: (Parmelia borreri) used to make a yellow dye for porcupine quills.
Gilmore, M.R.. 1977. Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. Page 11.

Ramalina HUMAN FOOD India
Area: India
Notes: "In India, Kubal Garam Masala, a curry additive,includes a high proportion of various Parmeliaceae (especially Parmotrema and Cetrariastrum species) as well as Ramalina and Usnea. .... In addition, the above lichens are also sold loose and added to curry as a bulking agent with mild preservative properties. The amount of materila collected for these purposes places a heavy burden on the diminishing lichen flora of the Indian subcontinent (M.R.D. Seaward, pers. comm.)."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 190.

Ramalina bourgeana MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Andalucia
Area: Andelucia, Spain
Notes: Flor de piedra. Decoction (one cup daily) used in the areas of Viso and Nijar as a diuretic for the treatment of kidney stones.
Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R.; Martinez-Lirola, M.J.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Molero-Mesa, J.. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany 49 (1): 96-68. Page 97.

Ramalina calicaris COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: "In the days of white-powdered hair, use was occasionally made of Ramalina calicaris which was ground down and substituted for starch that was more commonly employed."
Smith, A.L.. 1921. Lichens. Chapter X. Economical and technical. Cambridge Univ. Press. Page 419.

Ramalina calicaris DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: yellow-red [sic] dye for wool. "Powdered plant was formerly used instead of starch for dyeing perukes and wigs."
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 306.

Ramalina cuspidata DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: light brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 306.

Ramalina farinacea DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: light brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 306.

Ramalina farinacea PERFUME
Notes: "used in modern [1950] perfumes and cosmetics."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 414.

Ramalina fraxinea PERFUME
Notes: "used in modern [1950] perfumes and cosmetics."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 414.

Ramalina fraxinea PERFUME
Notes: used in perfumes and cosmetics.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 306.

Ramalina menziesii FIBER Kashaya Pomo
Area: Northern California
Notes: Used for baby diapers and other sanitary purposes.
Goodrich, J. & C. Lawson. 1980. Kashaya Pomo Plants. American Indian Studies Center, Univ. of Calif. at Los Angeles. Page 123.

Ramalina menziesii MAGICAL PROPERTIES Kawaiisu
Area: California
Notes: this appears to be the lichen that was placed in water to bring rain and put in fire to chase away lightning and thunder. Coyote myth included.
Zigmond, ML. 1981. Kawaiisu Ethnobotany. Kawaiisu Ethnobotany : 57-58. Page 57.

Ramalina pollinaria PERFUME
Notes: used in perfumes and cosmetics.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 306.

Ramalina pollinaria PERFUME
Notes: "used in modern [1950] perfumes and cosmetics."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 414.

Ramalina scopulorum DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland
Notes: yellow-brown to red-brown dye for wool. Lichens boiled in water for one day.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 306.

Ramalina spp. COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) India
Area: Howrah, Hooghly, and West Himalaya districts
Notes: made into hair powder.
Richardson, DHS. 1974. The Vanishing Lichens. Their History, Biology and Importance (section on human uses). Hafner Press (Macmillan Publishing Co.), New York. Page 118.

Ramalina spp. DYE SOURCE
Area: Peru
Notes: yellow dye.
Antunez de Mayolo, K.K.. 1989. Peruvian Natural Dye Plants. Econ. Bot. 43(2): 181-191. Page 188.

Ramalina thrausta (?) MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Finland
Area: Finland
Notes: perhaps included in the (beard mosses) that are placed on wounds, skin eruptions, and athlete's foot.
Vartia, K.O.. 1973. Antibiotics in lichens. Pages 547-561 In Ahmadjian, V, Hale, ME, eds. The Lichens. Page 548.

Rhizocarpon geographicum DYE SOURCE Scandinavia
Area: Scandinavia
Notes: brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 311.

Rimelia reticulata HUMAN FOOD India
Notes: "Shops and street sellers in the markets of Poona and Aurangabad frequently stock "dagaful" (stone flowers). This is a mixture of (Parmelia tinctorum), P. nilgherrense, (Parmelia retuculata, and P. sancti-algelia. Ramalina and Usnea sometimes may be included." Principal component of Kabul Garam Masala, a spice mixture which is usually added at the end of cooking.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Rimelia reticulata MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Tepehuan
Area: Chihuahua
Notes: common lichen (Parmelia reticulata) used in preparing a tea to relieve discomfort from kidney disorders or venereal disease. Prepared in late afternoon and set aside for one night before use.
Pennington, CW. 1969. The Tepehuan of Chihuahua. Univ. of Utah Press. Page 188.

Roccella DYE SOURCE Europeans
Notes: Orchil, purple dye from Roccella spp. Collected by the shipload from about 1450-1850. Sources: Canaries, Cape Verde Islands, Madagascar, Mexico, South America.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 190.

Roccella babingtonii MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Seri
Area: mainland side of Sea of Cortez
Notes: "ground plant, mixed with water, was used to bathe a child with a fever."
Felger, RS; Moser, MB. 1985. People of the Desert and Sea; Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. Page 217.

Roccella babingtonii MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Seri
Area: mainland side of Sea of Cortez
Notes: ground on metate, squeezed through a cloth with a bit of water; resulting liquid placed on a burn or sore.
Felger, RS; Moser, MB. 1985. People of the Desert and Sea; Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. Page 217.

Roccella babingtonii MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Seri
Area: mainland side of Sea of Cortez
Notes: tea used as remedy for shortness of breath, febrifuge.
Felger, RS; Moser, MB. 1985. People of the Desert and Sea; Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. Page 217.

Roccella babingtonii MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Seri
Area: mainland side of Sea of Cortez
Notes: "ground with castime (a kind of reddish clay) and water...used as a febrifuge and to cure diarrhea."
Felger, RS; Moser, MB. 1985. People of the Desert and Sea; Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. Page 217.

Roccella fuciformis COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) Pondicherry
Area: Pondicherry
Notes: used in preparation for cleaning hair.
Richardson, DHS. 1974. The Vanishing Lichens. Their History, Biology and Importance (section on human uses). Hafner Press (Macmillan Publishing Co.), New York. Page 118.

Roccella montagnei MISC. HUMAN USE England
Area: England
Notes: imported into England from Madagascar for production of litmus until 1950s.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Roccella tinctoria PHARMACEUTICAL
Notes: "useful in the coloring of pharmaceutical preparations (dyeing industry)."
Stuhr, ET. 1933. Manual of Pacific Coast Drug Plants. : 102. Page 102.

Roccellaceae DYE SOURCE
Notes: sources of "weed" in 18th & 19th centuries: the Levant, Mediterranean countries, Cape Verde Islands, Cape of Good Hope, Angola, East Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Ceylon, the East Indies, Australia, Chile, Peru, Baja California. Shiploads were collected from Baja California and adjacent islands.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 408.

Roccellaceae DYE SOURCE
Area: Mideast
Notes: Biblical reference to origin of dyes from Roccellaceae as "Isles of Elisha."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 407.

Roccellaceae DYE SOURCE Rome
Area: Rome
Notes: Theophrastus and Pliny apparently aware of dyes from Roccellaceae.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 407.

Roccellaceae MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Peruvian Indians
Area: Sicnani, Peru
Notes: two species in Roccellaceae bought in Indian market; one for coughs, one for fever.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 400.

Stereocaulon himalayense MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Lepchas
Area: Sakyong Valley, North Sikkim
Notes: pounded and boiled in water. About 100 ml of decoction twice a day after meals used to treat urinary troubles. Small amounts prescribed for blisters of the tongue.
Saklani, A.; Upreti, D.K.. 1992. Folk uses of some lichens in Sikkim.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 37: 229-233. Page 232.

Stereocaulon paschale DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: some parts of Europe
Notes: ash-green dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 347.

Stereocaulon paschale FIBER Inuit/Yup'ic
Area: Alaska and western Canada
Notes: Used to stuff caribou skins for rafts.
Wilson, M.R.. 1978. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian J. Anthropology VIII (2-4): 180-196. Page 190.

Stereocaulon paschale TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 101.

Thamnolia vermicularis solida DYE SOURCE
Area: San Pedro des Cajas (Junin), Peru
Notes: [reported, presumably by mistake, under Teloschistes as (T. vermicularis solida)]: orange-yellow dye.
Antunez de Mayolo, K.K.. 1989. Peruvian Natural Dye Plants. Econ. Bot. 43(2): 181-191. Page 188.

Thamnolia vermicularis subsolida DYE SOURCE
Area: San Pedro des Cajas (Junin), Peru
Notes: [reported, presumably by mistake, under Teloschistes as (T. vermicularis subsolida)]: orange-yellow dye.
Antunez de Mayolo, K.K.. 1989. Peruvian Natural Dye Plants. Econ. Bot. 43(2): 181-191. Page 188.

Umbiliaria sp. MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Inuit
Area: northern Quebec
Notes: (Rock tripe) used as a tea by those suffering from tuberculosis.
Stevens, J.. 1983. Traditional Medicine Project. Avataq Cultural Institute. Page 35.

Umbilicaria esculenta HUMAN FOOD Japan
Area: Japan
Notes: "The Japanese consume several hundred kilograms annually of Umbilicaria esculenta as a delicacy in soups, or deep fried."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 190.

Umbilicaria esculenta HUMAN FOOD Japan
Area: Japan
Notes: "Iwa-take" means "rock mushroom." Very difficult to collect; hunters sometimes lowered down cliffs in baskets. Very expensive; used as a "dainty" in a high-class dinner.
Kawagoe, S. 1925. The market fungi of Japan. Br. Mycol. Soc. Trans. 10: 201-206. Page 206.

Umbilicaria esculenta TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 101.

Umbilicaria mammulata MAGICAL PROPERTIES Cree (Tete-de-Boule)
Area: eastern Canada
Notes: placed on woman's stomach in case of difficult childbirth.
Arnason, T; Hebda, RJ; Johns, T. 1981. Use of plants for food and medicine by native peoples of eastern Canada. Can. J. Bot. 59(11): 2189-2325. Page 2308.

Umbilicaria muehlenbergii HUMAN FOOD Woods Cree (Nihitahawak)
Area: east-central Saskatchewan
Notes: "The plants were cleaned, broken into small pieces and added to fish broth to make a thick soup." (Several handfuls of lichen to one medium-sized fish.) Umbilicus discarded because hard to clean. Very hot water poured over lichen pieces before use and discarded. Boiled 5-10 minutes. Thickened as it cooled. "This soup was considered good nourishment for a sick person since it would not upset the stomach.
Leighton, A.L.. 1985. Wild plant use by the Woods Cree (Nihithawak) of East-Central Saskatchewan. Nat. Mus. of Man, Mercury Series, Can. Ethnol. Serv. 101: . Page 18.

Umbilicaria muhlenbergii HUMAN FOOD indigenous peoples in Canada
Area: Canada
Notes: (Gyrophora muhlenbergii), rock tripe. Agreeable and nutritious when boiled with fish-roe of other animal matter. Eaten by the natives. Ref. J. Franklin, 1823.
Sturtevant, E.L.. 1919. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. in Hedrick, UP, eds. . State of New York, Department of Agriculture J.B. Lyon Co. State Printers, Albany). Page 297.

Umbilicaria sp. HUMAN FOOD Algonkins
Area: upper Great Lakes region
Notes: "Used by Algonkins; most of their families would starve without it." Ref. Blair, E.H., 1911.
Yarnell, RA. 1964. Aboriginal Relationships Between Culture and Plant Life in the Upper Great Lakes Region. Anthropological Papers, University of Michigan. Univ. of Michigan. Page 72.

Umbilicaria sp. HUMAN FOOD Huron
Area: Great Lakes
Notes: (ref. Radission, P.E. 1885) (tripe de roche) boiled and used as food.
Chamberlain, L.S.. 1901. Plants used by the Indians of Eastern N. Amer.. Am. Nat. 35: 1-10. Page 7.

Umbilicaria spp. HUMAN FOOD list
Area: North America
Notes: emergency and famine food eaten by: Huran, Naskapi (Mistassini band and Lake St. John band), Chipewyan, Woods Cree, James Bay Cree, Inuit, Naskapi (probably)
Kuhnlein, H.V.; Turner, N.J.. 1991. Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Page 38.

Umbilicaria vellea HUMAN FOOD indigenous peoples in Canada
Area: Canada
Notes: (Gyrophora vellea), rock tripe. "Pleasanter food than the other species of this genus." Ref. J. Franklin, 1823.
Sturtevant, E.L.. 1919. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. in Hedrick, UP, eds. . State of New York, Department of Agriculture J.B. Lyon Co. State Printers, Albany). Page 297.

Usnea DYE SOURCE Coast Salish
Area: Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada
Notes: Used on the Island and the mainland to make a dark green dye.
Turner, N.C.; Bell, M.A.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Is.. Econ. Bot. 25(1): 62-104. Page 68.

Usnea HUMAN FOOD India
Area: India
Notes: "In India, Kubal Garam Masala, a curry additive,includes a high proportion of various Parmeliaceae (especially Parmotrema and Cetrariastrum species) as well as Ramalina and Usnea. .... In addition, the above lichens are also sold loose and added to curry as a bulking agent with mild preservative properties. The amount of materila collected for these purposes places a heavy burden on the diminishing lichen flora of the Indian subcontinent (M.R.D. Seaward, pers. comm.)."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 190.

Usnea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Notes: "A number of companies produce pastilles and pills for sore throats made from [Cetraria islandica] or from the beard lichen Usnea."
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 192.

Usnea "barbata" DYE SOURCE
Area: Peru
Notes: (Usnea barbata) yields dark blue dye.
Antunez de Mayolo, K.K.. 1989. Peruvian Natural Dye Plants. Econ. Bot. 43(2): 181-191. Page 188.

Usnea "barbata" DYE SOURCE Dakota
Area: Missouri River area
Notes: (Usnea barbata) used to make a yellow dye for porcupine quills.
Gilmore, M.R.. 1977. Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region. Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. Page 11.

Usnea "barbata" TRADITIONAL MEDICINE contemporary alternative medicine
Area: U.S.
Notes: "Indicated in the treatment of fungal infections of the mouth, stomach, intestines, anus, vagina, nose, ear, and skin, as well as systemic fungal infections." Administered internally, topically, and as a douche.
Herbal Resources, Inc.. 1998. Spilanthes-Usnea Compound: Anti-Fungal Remedy. Internet: www.herbsinfo.com.

Usnea (?) sp. MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Africa
Area: Mt. Kilimonjaro
Notes: Ingredient in (apparently effective) herbal tea given by African guide to relieve altitude sickness.
Hill, R.J.. 1998. . personal communication.

Usnea africana MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Hewas (Iraqw)
Area: East Africa
Notes: chewed fresh and juice swallowed to treat stomach ache.
Kokwaro, J.O.. 1976. Medicinal Plants of East Africa. East African Literature Bureau, Lampala, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam. Page 10.

Usnea articulata MEDICINE, ABSORBENT FIBER Samoa
Area: Samoa
Notes: used for wounds and shin bruises.
Brooker, S.G.; Cambie, R.C.; Cooper, R.C.. 1987. New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Heinemann, Aukland. Page 63.

Usnea barbata FIBER Maori
Area: New Zealand
Notes: used for feminine-hygiene absorbent.
Brooker, S.G.; Cambie, R.C.; Cooper, R.C.. 1987. New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Heinemann, Aukland. Page 63.

Usnea barbata HUMAN FOOD Russia
Area: arctic/subarctic Eurasia
Notes: method for making glucose "molasses" developed during World War II (in 1934-3) in former Soviet Union because beet sugar scarce and potatoes and grain used for military purposes. Glucose yield 74% of dry weight.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 385.

Usnea barbata TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: used to strengthen hair in 15th century. (signature)
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 399.

Usnea barbata TRADITIONAL MEDICINE ancient Greece
Area: Greece
Notes: Hippocrates recommended for uterine trouble.
Vartia, K.O.. 1973. Antibiotics in lichens. Pages 547-561 In Ahmadjian, V, Hale, ME, eds. The Lichens. Page 547.

Usnea barbata MEDICINE, ABSORBENT FIBER Maori
Area: New Zealand
Notes: used for bandaging wounds to check bleeding.
Brooker, S.G.; Cambie, R.C.; Cooper, R.C.. 1987. New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Heinemann, Aukland. Page 63.

Usnea barbata MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Greece
Area: Greece
Notes: Dioscorides recommended "beard moss" for certain diseases peculiar to women.
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 23.

Usnea barbata MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Malaysians
Area: Malay Peninsula
Notes: "The natives of the Malay Peninsula ... use this plant for colds and strengthening after confinement." Ref Foxworthy, 1922.
Llano, G.A.P.. 1944. Lichens: their biological and economic significance. The Botanical Review 10 (1): 1-65. Page 37.

Usnea barbata MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY ancient Greece
Area: Greece
Notes: Hippocrates prescribed for uterine ailments.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 399.

Usnea californica FIBER Southwestern Pomo
Area: California
Notes: used as diapers for babies.
Gifford, E.W.. 1967. Ethnographic notes on the Southwestern Pomo. Anth. Records 25: 10-15. Page 10.

Usnea cavernosa FIBER Indians of Mendocino county
Area: Mendocino County
Notes: (Usnea lacunosa Tuckerm.): "Under the name of "moss" it is sometimes gathered for use as bedding material."
Chesnut (Chestnut), V.K.. . Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. : 299-300. Page 300.

Usnea cavernosa TANNING HIDES Wylackie
Area: north of Round Valley, California
Notes: "Wylackie tribe of northern California take brains and wrap up in a gray-green lichen, (Usnea lacunosa), in brick form, then rub this later, crumbling into hide." [for tanning hides]
Murphy, E.V.A.. 1959. Indian Uses of Native Plants. Mendocino Co. Historical Soc.. Page 55.

Usnea densirostra TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Uruguay
Area: Uruguay
Notes: probable identification of "yerba de la piedra," which has medicinal uses.
Osorio, H.S.. 1982. Contribution to the lichen flora of Uruguay XVII. The scientific name of the "Yerba de la Piedra". Phytologia 52: 217-220. Page 218.

Usnea diffracta TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 59.

Usnea diffracta MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY China
Area: China
Notes: "Lao-tzu's beard," "pine gauze," "female gauze" described in earliest herbal (500 AD). Picked in 5th lunar month, dried in the shade. Stops sweating, dizziness, cold, pain, phlegm. Benefits urinary tract and stops swelling in female genitalia.
Strickmann, M. . Lichen notes from all over. unpubl. notes : . Page 2.

Usnea filipendula DYE SOURCE Ecuador
Area: Ecuador
Notes: (Usnea dasypoga) specimen collected from Ecuador is annotated "'a brown dye is made by boiling with lemons.'"
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 413.

Usnea filipendula MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Russia
Area: Primorye and South Sakhalin ("Soviet Far East")
Notes: (Usnea dasypoga) used in powdered form to treat wounds. Tested for antibacterial activity. Results quite positive.
Moskalenko, S.A.. 1986. Preliminary screening of far-eastern ethnomedicinal plants for antibacterial activity.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 15: 321-259. Page 234.

Usnea flavescens MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Hewas (Iraqw)
Area: East Africa
Notes: chewed fresh and juice swallowed to treat stomach ache.
Kokwaro, J.O.. 1976. Medicinal Plants of East Africa. East African Literature Bureau, Lampala, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam. Page 10.

Usnea florida MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Mapuche (Araucanian Indians)
Area: south-central Chile
Notes: infusion taken for diarrhoea.
Houghton, P.J.; Manby, J.. 1985. Medicinal plants of the Mapuche. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 13: 89-103. Page 91.

Usnea hirta DYE SOURCE Navajo
Area: New Mexico (?)
Notes: "flesh-color" dye.
Suminski, R.. 1994. . personal letter (species determinations by J. Marsh).

Usnea longissima FIBER Bhotia tribe
Area: Uttarkashi district, Garhwal Himalaya, India
Notes: Used for stuffing pillows and cushions, which are thought to sometimes cause asthma.
Brij Lal; Upreti, D.K.. 1995. Ethnobotanical notes on three Indian lichens. Lichenologist 27(1): 77-79. Page 78.

Usnea longissima FIBER Haida
Area: Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia
Notes: "used to strain hot pitch to remove impurities before it was used as medicine."
Turner, N.J.. 1979. Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No. 38, British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 47.

Usnea longissima FIBER Hanaksiala
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Used as mattresses at seasonal camps. Ref. Compton, B.D. 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Usnea longissima FIBER India
Area: Simla Hills
Notes: used for filling cushions.
Chopra, R.N.; Chopra, I.C.; Handa, K.L.; Kapur, LD. 1958. Indigenous Drugs of India. Academic Publishers, Calcutta & New Delhi. Page 643.

Usnea longissima FIBER Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: valued for absorbent qualities -- (wound dressing), baby diapers, sanitary napkins for women, wiping salmon
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 55.

Usnea longissima TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Baiga tribe
Area: Madhya Pradesh, India
Notes: Reported to be used for treating bone fractures.
Brij Lal; Upreti, D.K.. 1995. Ethnobotanical notes on three Indian lichens. Lichenologist 27(1): 77-79. Page 78.

Usnea longissima TRADITIONAL MEDICINE China
Area: China
Notes: used in Chinese medicine.
Hu, S.-y.; Kong, Y.C.; But, P.P.H.. 1980. An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong. Page 112.

Usnea longissima MEDICINE, ABSORBENT FIBER Nitinaht Indians
Area: west coast of Vancouver Island
Notes: valued for absorbent qualities -- wound dressing.
Turner, N.J.; Thomas, J.; Carlson, R.T.. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Prov. Mus. Occas. Pap. No. 24 : 165. Page 55.

Usnea longissima MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY China
Area: China
Notes: "Lao-tzu's beard," "pine gauze," "female gauze" described in earliest herbal (500 AD). Picked in 5th lunar month, dried in the shade. Stops sweating, dizziness, cold, pain, phlegm. Benefits urinary tract and stops swelling in female genitalia.
Strickmann, M. . Lichen notes from all over. unpubl. notes : . Page 2.

Usnea longissima MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY China
Area: China
Notes: used for medicinal purposes, especially as an expectorant and in the treatment of ulcers.
Chopra, R.N.; Chopra, I.C.; Handa, K.L.; Kapur, LD. 1958. Indigenous Drugs of India. Academic Publishers, Calcutta & New Delhi. Page 645.

Usnea longissima MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY China
Area: China
Notes: used by as an expectorant.
Vartia, K.O.. 1973. Antibiotics in lichens. Pages 547-561 In Ahmadjian, V, Hale, ME, eds. The Lichens. Page 547.

Usnea sikkimensis MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY India
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim
Notes: powdered lichen used to strengthen hair.
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : . Page 98.

Usnea sikkimensis MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY India
Area: Darjeeling and Sikkim
Notes: Remedy for lung troubles, haemorrhage, and asthma.
Biswas, K. 1956. Common Medicinal Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. : . Page 98.

Usnea sp. DYE SOURCE Makah
Area: Olympic Peninsula, Washington
Notes: Source of yellow dye. Ref. Gill, S.J. 1983.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Usnea sp. FIBER Makah
Area: Olympic Peninsula, Washington
Notes: Used in bags and pillows when feathers unavailable. Ref. Gill, S.J. 1983.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Usnea sp. FIBER Makah
Area: Olympic Peninsula, Washington
Notes: Used as diapers and feminine hygiene supplies. Ref. Gill, S.J. 1983.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Usnea sp. FUEL/TINDER Kutchin Athabaskan Indians
Area: Fort Yukon, Alaska
Notes: Usnea sp. "(Grandma's-hair)" collected from spruce trees and occasionally used as tinder. [note: Alectoria??]
Holloway, P.S.; Alexander, G.. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Fort Yukon Region, Alaska. Econ. Bot. 44(2): 214-225. Page 223.

Usnea sp. FALSE HAIR, WHISKERS New Guinea
Area: New Guinea
Notes: used for personal decoration. Photo of old woman from Enga Province, Papua, with Usnea on her head.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1991. Lichens and man. Pages 187-210 In Hawksworth, D.L., ed. Frontiers in Mycology. Page 189.

Usnea sp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Italy
Area: "Brocon" Pass, Valsugana Valley, Trentino district, Italy
Notes: Shepherds put Usnea sp. in their shoes to prevent or treat blisters.
Zorer, R.. 1998. . personal communication : .

Usnea sp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Karen
Area: Doi Inthanon (national park), Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Notes: Used in a bath for women following the birth of a child, to aid parturition and to prevent infection.
Wolseley, P.. 1998. . personal communication : .

Usnea sp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Makah
Area: Olympic Peninsula, Washington
Notes: Used to treat boils. Ref. Gill, S.J. 1983.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Usnea sp. MEDICINE, ABSORBENT FIBER Woods Cree (Nihitahawak)
Area: east-central Saskatchewan
Notes: fresh lichen inserted into nostril to stop a nose bleed.
Leighton, A.L.. 1985. Wild plant use by the Woods Cree (Nihithawak) of East-Central Saskatchewan. Nat. Mus. of Man, Mercury Series, Can. Ethnol. Serv. 101: . Page 20.

Usnea spp. FALSE HAIR, WHISKERS Bella Coola Indians
Area: British Columbia, Canada
Notes: used as artificial hair to decorate dance masks.
Turner, N.J.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6: 193-220.

Usnea spp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Finland
Area: Finland
Notes: included in the (beard mosses) that are placed on wounds, skin eruptions, and athlete's foot.
Vartia, K.O.. 1973. Antibiotics in lichens. Pages 547-561 In Ahmadjian, V, Hale, ME, eds. The Lichens. Page 548.

Usnea spp. MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Sweden
Area: Malung, Dalarna, Sweden
Notes: used to treat foot blisters.
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

Usnea spp. MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY
Notes: "...decoctions from species of the lichen Usnea have been used against viral warts."
Blackwell, W.H.. 1990. Poisonous and Medicinal Plants. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Page 103.

Usnea spp. or Alectoria sarmentosa MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Bella Coola Indians
Area: British Columbia, Canada
Notes: "long white lichen" used, if growing on alder, to poultice sores and boils. (ref. Smith, 1928 [8720])
Turner, N.J.. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6: 193-220.

Usnea subfusca BREWING (ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES) Tarahumar
Area: (uplands)
Notes: widely used as catalyst in making fermented corn (and cornstalk) beverages.
Pennington, C.W.. 1963. The Tarahumar of Mexico. Univ of Utah Press. Page 151.

Usnea subfusca DYE SOURCE Tarahumar
Area: (uplands)
Notes: common on upland rocks. used in preparing rust-colored dyestuff. Crushed lichens mixed with alum, boiled for several hours. Wool simmered near slow fire for several days, then dried in sun.
Pennington, C.W.. 1963. The Tarahumar of Mexico. Univ of Utah Press. Page 151.

Usnea variolosa BREWING (ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES) Tarahumar
Area: (uplands)
Notes: widely used as catalyst in making fermented corn (and cornstalk) beverages.
Pennington, C.W.. 1963. The Tarahumar of Mexico. Univ of Utah Press. Page 151.

Usnea variolosa DYE SOURCE Tarahumar
Area: (uplands)
Notes: common on upland rocks. used in preparing rust-colored dyestuff. Crushed lichens mixed with alum, boiled for several hours. Wool simmered near slow fire for several days, then dried in sun.
Pennington, C.W.. 1963. The Tarahumar of Mexico. Univ of Utah Press. Page 151.

Vulpicida canadensis DYE SOURCE Gitksan
Area: around Kitwanga, British Columbia
Notes: specimen identified by G.K. Merrill in 1926 for anthropologist Harlan Smith as (Cetraria juniperina). Smith's informant reported use for dyeing mountain-goat wool.
Gottesfeld, L.M.J.. 1995. . personal communication.

Vulpicida juniperina DYE SOURCE Scandinavia
Area: Scandinavia
Notes: (Cetraria juniperina): yellow dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 85.

Vulpicida juniperina USE AS POISON Scandinavia
Area: Scandinavia
Notes: (Cetraria juniperina): used for poisoning wolves.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 85.

Vulpicida juniperina USE AS POISON northern Europe
Area: northern Europe
Notes: (Cetraria juniperina) mixed with powdered glass to poison wolves.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 401.

Vulpicida pinastri DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: some parts of Europe
Notes: (Cetraria pinastri) yields green dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 85.

Vulpicida pinastri USE AS POISON northern Europe
Area: northern Europe
Notes: used to poison wolves.
Smith, A.L.. 1921. Lichens. Chapter X. Economical and technical. Cambridge Univ. Press. Page 410.

Xanthoparmelia chlorchroa MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Navajo
Area: New Mexico
Notes: (Parmelia molliuscula) used as remedy for impetigo.
Elmore, F.H.. 1944. Ethnobotany of the Navajo. U. of New Mexico Press. Page 16.

Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa DYE SOURCE Indians
Area: North America
Notes: (Parmelia molliuscula) yields a fine, non-fading red dye.
Murphy, E.V.A.. 1959. Indian Uses of Native Plants. Mendocino Co. Historical Soc.. Page 53.

Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa DYE SOURCE Navajo
Area: New Mexico
Notes: (Parmelia molliuscula) may be scraped from rocks after a rain and made into a yellow-orange dye.
Elmore, F.H.. 1944. Ethnobotany of the Navajo. U. of New Mexico Press. Page 16.

Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa DYE SOURCE Navajo
Area: Southwest
Notes: entire plant boiled for dye. May be used fresh or dried.
Bryan, N.G.; Young, S.; Shirley, C.K.. 1940. Navajo Native Dyes. Their Preparation and Use. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Page 42.

Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa DYE SOURCE Navajo
Area: New Mexico
Notes: (Parmelia molliuscula) used in paint for leather and dye for wool and basketry materials.
Elmore, F.H.. 1944. Ethnobotany of the Navajo. U. of New Mexico Press. Page 39, 84.

Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa DYE SOURCE Ramah Navajo
Area: northern New Mexico
Notes: "Ground lichen" is used by Ramah Navajo weavers to make a warm brown dye. It is boiled in water over an open flame.
Henio, J.. 1995. . personal communication : .

Xanthoparmelia conspersa DYE SOURCE Europe
Area: England
Notes: (Parmelia conspersa) yields red-brown dye for wool.
Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Xanthoparmelia conspersa MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Mpondo
Area: Africa
Notes: (Parmelia conspersa) (decoction drunk and) powder applied locally for treatment of venereal disease, especially syphilis.
Watt, J.M.; Breyer-Brandwijk, M.R.. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southeastern and Eastern Africa.... E. and S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London. Page 1132.

Xanthoparmelia conspersa MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Xhosa
Area: Africa
Notes: (Parmelia conspersa) (taken internally and) applied locally as a snake-bite remedy.
Watt, J.M.; Breyer-Brandwijk, M.R.. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southeastern and Eastern Africa.... E. and S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London. Page 1132.

Xanthoparmelia conspersa MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Mpondo
Area: Africa
Notes: (Parmelia conspersa) decoction drunk (and powder applied locally) for treatment of venereal disease, especially syphilis.
Watt, J.M.; Breyer-Brandwijk, M.R.. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southeastern and Eastern Africa.... E. and S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London. Page 1132.

Xanthoparmelia conspersa MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Xhosa
Area: Africa
Notes: (Parmelia conspersa) taken internally (and applied locally) as a snake-bite remedy.
Watt, J.M.; Breyer-Brandwijk, M.R.. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southeastern and Eastern Africa.... E. and S. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh and London. Page 1132.

Xanthoparmelia sp. DYE SOURCE Navajo
Area: New Mexico (?)
Notes: beige dye.
Suminski, R.. 1994. . personal letter (species determinations by J. Marsh).

Xanthoria MISC. HUMAN USE Nunamiut (Nunatarmiut) Eskimo
Area: Alaska
Notes: used by hunters to locate burrows of hoary marmots because grows in bright yellow rings around latrine areas close to burrow openings.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 386.

Xanthoria elegans DYE SOURCE Haisla and Hanaksiala
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Used as pigment for face paint. Ref. Compton, B.D. 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Xanthoria elegans DYE SOURCE Kitasoo
Area: British Columbia
Notes: Used as yellow pigment for paint. Ref. Compton, B.D. 1993.
Moerman, D.. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. see: Internet: www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb/.

Xanthoria parietina COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) India
Area: India
Notes: (Parmelia parietina) used in a preparation for washing the hair.
Nadkarni,K.M.. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Pages 922 In A.K. Nadkarni, ed. . Page 922.

Xanthoria parietina DECORATION England
Area: White Peak area, Derbyshire
Notes: used in mosaics of plant materials composed on wooden trays an displayed for about a week at village wells during well-dressing festivals. Sorted carefully to produce range of colors from bright orange to yellow to green. Custom probably dates at least from early nineteenth century. Now tourist attractions.
Vickery, A.R.. 1975. The use of lichens in well-dressing. Lichenologist 7: 178-179. Page 178.

Xanthoria parietina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: (Parmelia parietina) used in intermittent fevers.
Lindley, J. 1849. Medical and Oeconomical Botany. Bradbury and Evans, London. Page 19.

Xanthoria parietina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: "[formerly] considered a specific in jaundice."
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 22.

Xanthoria parietina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: supposed in 15th century to cure jaundice. (signature)
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 399.

Xanthoria parietina MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: [formerly] considered a substitute for quinine, but not effective.
Schneider, A. 1904. A Guide to the Study of Lichens. Knight and Miller, Boston. Page 22.

Xanthoria parietina subsp. ectanea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Andalucia
Area: Andalucia, Spain
Notes: Decoction used with wine to treat menstrual complaints in Campohermoso. Common names: flor de piedra, rompiedra.
Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R.; Martinez-Lirola, M.J.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Molero-Mesa, J.. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany 49 (1): 96-68. Page 97.

Xanthoria parietina subsp. ectanea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Andelucia
Area: Andelucia, Spain
Notes: Common names: flor de piedra, rompiedra. Decoction used to treat kidney disorders in Barranquete, Cueva de los Medinas, Joya, Pozo de los Frailes, and Puebloblanco.
Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R.; Martinez-Lirola, M.J.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Molero-Mesa, J.. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany 49 (1): 96-68. Page 97.

Xanthoria parietina subsp. ectanea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Andelucia
Area: Andelucia, Spain
Notes: Common names: flor de piedra, rompiedra. Decoction used to treat toothache in Fernan Perez and Joya.
Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R.; Martinez-Lirola, M.J.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Molero-Mesa, J.. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany 49 (1): 96-68. Page 97.

Xanthoria parietina subsp. ectanea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Andelucia
Area: Andalucia, Spain
Notes: Common names: flor de piedra, rompiedra. Decoction used to treat various pains in Funete del Escribano.
Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R.; Martinez-Lirola, M.J.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Molero-Mesa, J.. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany 49 (1): 96-68. Page 97.

Xanthoria parietina subsp. ectanea MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Andelucia
Area: Andelucia, Spain
Notes: Common names: flor de piedra, rompiedra. One ingredient of cough syrup in San Isidro Jiminez.
Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R.; Martinez-Lirola, M.J.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Molero-Mesa, J.. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany 49 (1): 96-68. Page 97.

caribou lichens FED TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS Eskimo
Area: near Bethel, Alaska
Notes: ("caribou food" lichens) soaked overnight with ashes from fire, rinsed, boiled with meat into thick jelly for dog food.
Jones, A. 1983. Nauriat Niginaqtuat (Plants that We Eat). Anore Jones and Maniilaq Association. Page 130.

caribou lichens HUMAN FOOD Eskimo
Area: near Bethel, Alaska
Notes: account of preparation and use of fermented caribou stomach. Caribou enzymes digest lichens.
Jones, A. 1983. Nauriat Niginaqtuat (Plants that We Eat). Anore Jones and Maniilaq Association. Page 130.

caribou lichens HUMAN FOOD North Alaskan Eskimo
Area: Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska
Notes: caribou stomach (rumen) contents highly prized. Fermented in excised rumen for 2 or 3 days prior to consumption. Mostly lichens.
Nickerson, N.H.; Rowe, N.H.; Richter, E.A.. 1973. Native plants in the diets of north Alaskan Eskimos. in Man and His Foods. University of Alabama Press. Page 15.

crustose lichens MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Paiute
Area: Tonopah, Nevada
Notes: "The black, orange and green lichens are scraped from rocks and soaked overnight in cold water. The solution then is taken internally to stop diarrhea."
Train, P.; Heinrichs, J.R.; Archer, W.A.. 1974. Medicinal uses of plants by Indian tribes of Nevada. Pages 53- In Horr, D.A., ed. American Indian Ethnohistory: Paiute Indians IV. Page 151.

lichen MISC. HUMAN USE Iceland
Area: Iceland
Notes: "'gros' (lichen) has been mentioned already mentioned in the 'Johsbok' (law book) in 1280 as a natural product which could not be collected without the landowner's permission." [This seems to refer to Cetraria islandica.]
Airaksinen, M.M.; Peura, P.; Ala-Fossi-Salokangas, L.; Antere, S.; Lukkarinin, J.; Saikkonen, M.; Stenback, F.. 1986. Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18: 273-296. Page 278.

lichen MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Maori
Area: New Zealand
Notes: unknown lichen species applied as dried powder to cutaneous eruptions.
Brooker, S.G.; Cooper, R.C.. 1961. New Zealand medicinal plants. Econ. Bot. 15: 1-10. Page 2.

lichen MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Europe
Area: Europe
Notes: lichens found growing on human skull (muscus cranii humani) worth its weight in gold as a cure for epilepsy in 15th century.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 400.

lichen glucose MISC. HUMAN USE Russia
Area: Kirovsk
Notes: lichen glucose [see notes 2224-2229] used for typographical purposes at printing plant in Kirovsk.
Llano, G.A.. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Econ. Bot. 10(4): 367-392. Page 385.

lichen? FIBER Yakutat Tlingit
Area: Yakutat Peninsula, Alaska
Notes: "useless long hanging white moss...used for diapers."
De Laguna, F. 1972. Under Mount Saint Elias: the history and culture of the Yakutat Tlingit. Smithsonian Contr. to Anth., Part 2 7: 552-913. Page 31-B.

lichens MISC. HUMAN USE Sweden
Area: Sweden
Notes: manufacture of brandy from lichen-derived alcohol was a large industry in 1893, but lichens were locally exhausted by 1894.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 404.

lichens BREWING (ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES) Russia and Siberia
Area: Russia and Siberia
Notes: used instead of hops in one or more monasteries which served bitter and highly intoxicating beer to travelers.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 404.

lichens FED TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS Scandinavia
Area: Scandinavia
Notes: "A farmer having 10 cows and some sheep and goats uses yearly 60 sledge loads of lichens for his stock."
Llano, G.A.P.. 1944. Lichens: their biological and economic significance. The Botanical Review 10 (1): 1-65. Page 32.

lichens FED TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS Sweden
Area: Harjedalen, Sweden
Notes: "various lichens collected, placed into small blocks and frozen during the winter...then used as food for cattle. Reputedly, the cow's milk was more beneficial and plentiful on this diet."
Ahmadjian, V.; Nilsson, S.. 1963. Swedish lichens. Yearbook (American Swedish Historical Foundation) : .

lichens DYE SOURCE Great Britain
Area: Great Britain
Notes: making of Harris tweeds originally depended on lichen dyes. It takes a person nearly a whole day to collect enough lichens to dye 50-60 lbs. of wool.
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 406.

lichens DYE SOURCE Great Britain
Area: Great Britain
Notes: "It has been observed the wool dyed with lichen dyes is not attacked by cloth moths, which accounts in part for the durability of this cloth."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 406.

lichens DYE SOURCE Scotland
Area: Scotland, e.g. Aberdeenshire
Notes: "In certain districts of Scotland, as Aberdeenshire, almost every farm or cotter had its tank or barrel ("litpig") of putrid urine ("graith") wherein the mistress of the household macerated from lichens ("crotals" or "crottles") to prepare dyes for homespun stockings, nightcaps or other garments. The usual practice was to boil the lichen and woolen clothes together in water or in the urine-treated lichen mass until the desired color, usually brown, was obtained. This took several hours, or less on the addition of acetic acid, producing fast dyes without the benefit of a mordant or fixing agent. The color was intensified by adding salt or saltpeter. This method was prevalent in Iceland as well as in Scotland for those homespuns best known to the trade as Harris tweed."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 411.

lichens FUEL/TINDER inland Eskimo
Area: Great Fish River (now Back River), Northwest Territories, Canada
Notes: lichens used with mosses and a kind of heather in cooking and heating.
Moffatt, E., jr.. 1962. The Eskimos. Archon Books, Hamden, CT. Page 104.

lichens HUMAN FOOD France
Area: France
Notes: used in manufacture of chocolates and pastries; lichenin substitutes for commercial starch. [ca. 1948]
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

lichens HUMAN FOOD France
Area: France
Notes: "lichens are used [1951] in the manufacture of chocolates and some pastries; then lichnenin is, in this case, merely used as a filler and a substitute for commercial starch."
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 395.

lichens MAGICAL PROPERTIES Hebrides
Area: Hebrides Islands, Scotland
Notes: "'lichens from the rocks supply a dye of misty brown, but the fishermen do not use this color while in their boats, believing that what is taken from the rocks will return to the rocks'" (ref. Campbell, National Geographic Magazine, Feb. 1947)
Llano, G.A.. 1951. Economic uses of lichens. Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. : 385-422. Page 411.

lichens MAGICAL PROPERTIES Northern Lacandone Indians
Area: Southern Mexico
Notes: invoked in magical healing of skin eruptions.
Ratsch, C. . Lichens in Northern Lacandone culture. unpubl. notes : .

lichens MEDICINE, APPLIED EXTERNALLY Yakutat Tlingit
Area: Yakutat Peninsula, Alaska
Notes: "'Lichens from the ground in the woods are good for sores. Smash it up and heat it on rocks with seal oil and mountain goat tallow.'"
De Laguna, F. 1972. Under Mount Saint Elias: the history and culture of the Yakutat Tlingit. Smithsonian Contr. to Anth., Part 2 7: 552-913. Page 656-B.

lichens MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Chacobo Indians
Area: Beni, Bolivia
Notes: 5 unidentified lichens used to treat chest and appendix pain; headache; liver problems; rheumatism. [specimens at NY Bot. Garden].
Broom, B.M.. 1987. Ethnobotany of the Chacabo Indians, Beni, Bolivia. NY Botanical Garden. Page 68.

lichens MEDICINE, TAKEN INTERNALLY Seri
Area: northern Mexico
Notes: gray foliose and orange crustose lichens used to make tea that was taken as an emetic.
Felger, RS; Moser, MB. 1985. People of the Desert and Sea; Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. Page 217.

litmus COSMETIC (HAIR POWDER) Israel
Area: Milady (Company), Tel Aviv, Israel
Notes: litmus an ingredient in henna hair conditioners.
Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93-108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

orange and yellow crustose lichens TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Northern Paiute
Area: western Nevada
Notes: Orange and yellow crustose lichens were very important medicinally, used as antibiotics and fungicides. The Northern Paiute names translates as "lizard semen" and derives from the little pushups that western fence lizards do on rocks.
Fowler, Catherine. 1996. . personal communication.

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