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THE BOOK

LICHENS OF NORTH AMERICA

By Irwin M. Brodo, Sylvia Duran Sharnoff, and Stephen Sharnoff

Published by Yale University Press

Select drawings by Susan Laurie-Bourque

Foreword by Peter Raven

Published in collaboration with the Canadian Museum of Nature
Photographic fieldwork sponsored by the Missouri Botanical Garden

Lichens of North America features

What reviewers have said:

"This is a book to love. It will open a whole new world for naturalists, professional and amateur, to explore and enjoy." --E.O. Wilson, Harvard University

"A long-sought triumph, gorgeously illustrated, accurate, accessible, and comprehensive." --Lynn Margulis, University of Massachusetts

"This volume is the twenty-first-century lichen equivalent of Audubon's Birds of America." --Thomas E. Lovejoy, Smithsonian Institution

 

 

 

You can order Lichens of North America directly from Yale University Press, by visiting their website: http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/home.asp

Photograph copyright Stephen/Sylvia Sharnoff

 

CORRECTIONS FOR LICHENS OF NORTH AMERICA(as of 5 July 2010)

Irwin M. Brodo

Preface. Since Lichens of North America appeared in September 2001, numerous small errors in the text and captions became known to us, much to our annoyance.  We discovered most of them ourselves, but readers and students using the book discovered many others.  As each printing of the book sold out and new printings were prepared, Yale University Press gave us the opportunity to correct anything that did not require a major resetting of the text or redesign of the pages.  With the publication of the fourth printing in February 2007, we shared all these changes with our readers.  A fifth printing is now underway, but it did not incorporate any further changes.  Errors discovered between the fourth and fifth printings are listed here, together with the other corrections.  They are “color-coded” to make them easy to sort out: blue for the second printing, red for the third, and purple for the fourth. Recent corrections are in green.
These small corrections do not constitute a new “edition.” Unfortunately, a second edition does not seem to be economically feasible at this time.  Instead, there are plans to publish updated and expanded keys with modern nomenclature in a spiral-bound workbook-type format.  A proposal to produce smaller, regional field-guides based on LNA is also in the works.  IMB

page xxii, Acknowledgements, right column, change Rudi “Becker” to Rudi Becking. [Corrected in second printing, 2002]

p. 4. Caption to Plate 1: Change identification of the cup fungus photo from Aleuria aurantia to Sowerbyella rhenana. [Corrected in third printing, April 2004.]

p. 7, caption to Figure 4: For ... the orange Xanthoria elegans, read ... the orange Caloplaca trachyphylla. [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 34. Close up space between “anthraquinones” and “coloring species…” [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 55.  Plate 40: … invasion of lichens and mosses over bare sandstone rock.  [not “granite”] [Corrected in third printing, April 2004]

p. 64, Fig. 23.  Map f: For “Pseudoevernia,” read: Pseudevernia  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 65, Fig. 23. Map l (el): For “sphaerosporelia,” read: sphaerosporella  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 122, couplet 8(b): Replace “photobiont Hyphomorpha” with: photobiont Scytonema. [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 124, key, couplet 39: For “Fuscidia,” read: Fuscidea. [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 127, couplet 12b: For “1-8 spores,” read: 1-32 spores...  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 131, couplet 83: Change to:
88(a):  ..... essentially negative; on rock ............ Rhizocarpon
88(b): .......... at least in part; on various substrates ........ Buellia ....
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 131: Key, couplet 88(b) should be Rhizocarpon rather than “Rhizocarpon hochstetteri” [so that it would include R. chioneum in the Rhizocarpon key].  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 131, Key, couplet 88(b): change spore size from 8-11 µm to 8-12 µm. [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004.]

p. 134: Key G:  Couplet 2: Remove “Apothecia lecanorine;” and “Apothecia biatorine;”  [The apothecia are basically lecanorine in both genera.] [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004.]

p. 138, couplet 19(b): For “rhizines pale;” read: rhizines pale or dark brown;

p. 150. Alectoria, right column, line 13: the reference to the figure should read: Fig. 36, p. 710.  [Corrected in second printing, 2002]

p. 150, right column, line 8 [to correspond with the caption for figure 37 (p. 710)]:
 For “central supporting cord,” read ... central supporting cord or “axis”...
            and, line 12, for “central cord,”  read: central axis
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 151: Key to Alectoria.  Add Bryoria glabra to couplet 18 (as couplet 18a) since it is a main entry:
18............ Thallus very dark brown, almost black; branches very slender (less than 0.2 mm in diameter), brittle; soralia typically abundant, often broader than the branch; cortex PD–
........... ........... Bryoria lanestris
18............ Thallus dark to medium brown to olive; branches 0.2-0.6 mm in diameter, not very brittle; soralia relatively sparse, usually not broader than the branch; cortex PD+ red or PD–........... 18a

18a............ Thallus dark to medium brown, typically dull, usually paler at the base; angles between the branches (axils) acute, not rounded; soralia tuberculate or fissural; cortex PD+ red or PD-
........... ...........  Bryoria fuscescens
18a............ Thallus olive to olive-brown, shiny, not paler at base; branch axils broad and rounded; soralia always fissural; cortex PD-........... Bryoria glabra
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 169  [Bruce McCune, in his review (Bryologist) says that Plate 122 is a picture of Aspicilia fruticulosa, not A. hispida.  He is correct. The voucher (674.02) is a mixture of both species.  Unfortunately, the photograph shows A. fruticulosa.] 
So, change caption for plate 122:  For Aspicilia hispida, read: Aspicilia fruticulosa.  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 170, left column, line 5: Change sentence to read: Aspicilia fruticulosa, shown in plate 122, is a rarer member of this group.  It has white ……..  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 185.  Map for Bryoria trichodes is wrong.  The two-color rendition was incorrectly interpreted for the book.  (For example, the New England area, as well as the Pacific Northwest coast from Washington to Alaska, should all be purple.) See attachment for correction.  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 187 (key), couplet 9, change to:
                 9. Spores mostly 12-17 x 5-8 μm; hymenium yellowish, lacking oil drops;
                thallus K+ dark yellow to blood red (norstictic acid sparse or abundant)
                         …………………………………………………. Buellia stillingiana
                9. Spores mostly 18-26(-30) x 6-11 μm; hymenium colorless, but containing
                abundant oil drops; thallus K+ yellow or K- (although always
                containing atranorin)…………………………… Buellia disciformis
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]
p. 193, key: Replace couplet 10(a) with: Parasitic on lichens, especially Pertusaria; stalk extremely short or absent, never longer than capitulum, light to dark brown; spores subspherical, 5-7 μm in diameter; widespread ......... [Sphinctrina turbinata]  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 235, couplet 67(b):  For “Cups closed,” read: Cups and podetia closed .  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 235, couplet 68(b): Replace “Cups closed” with: Cups without sieve-like perforations, but podetia irregularly perforate or fissured; surface.....   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 247. Under Cladonia coniocraea, lines 5-6: For “without soredia,” read: with or without soredia.  [OR, even better,] : without soredia or sorediate on the lower surface near the edges.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 249, Under Cladonia crispata, line 3: For “Podetia usually brown,” read:  ... Podetia 30-50(-80) mm tall, usually brown...  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 256-7, maps.  There is no indication of the subspecies depicted by the maps. So, under Subspecies gracilis, replace  “(plate 239)” with “(plate 239, top map)…”  AND, on page 257, under Subspecies turbinata, replace “(plate 240)” with “(plate 240, bottom map).”  OR: insert labels into lower left corner of map boxes: “ssp. gracilis”[for top map] and “ssp. turbinata” [for bottom map].  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 268, caption to Plate 261. For Cladonia rappii, read Cladonia rappii ssp. exilior.  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 271, under Cladonia strepsilis, line 8:  For “detatched,” read ... detached. [Corrected in third printing, April 2003]

p. 280, under Coccocarpia erythroxyli, last three lines, read: Degelia plumbea is relatively rare in North America, with scattered localities from Maine to Newfoundland, but especially in Nova Scotia.

p. 308, Endocarpon pulvinatum. Description, line 2: Reword as follows:  ... consisting of erect, flattened to cylindrical squamules or tiny branches 2-6 mm high; summits with ...  ... giving the squamules an inflated appearance; lower portions of the squamules or branches often....  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 320.  Plate 337 shows Fulgensia fulgens, not F. desertorum as stated.  Replace the photo with true F. desertorum and change the caption accordingly. [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2003.] HOWEVER, photograph was reproduced poorlyReplace with good photo.  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 356.  Hypogymnia tubulosa:  According to the map, it is not a species of the “northern boreal forest.”  Change that comment to “…in the eastern and western
boreal forests.” [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004.]

p. 356. Hypogymnia tubulosa: [First and second printings:] Left column, line 5: Replace hyphen with a space in “...not-bursting...” [Partially corrected in third printing, BUT, in that printing:] For “notbursting,” read; not bursting.  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 363, Ionaspis, Key to Species: Replace “[Ionaspis epulotica]” with [Hymenelia epulotica].  [See also Index entries below.]  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 373, couplet 17, first choice, read: … eastern temperate deciduous forests and west coast.

p. 377. Right column, top line. Lecanora cateilea… for “C+ yellow-orange disks,” read: C- disks.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 377, midway down left column: Description of range of Lecanora caesiorubella ssp. merrillii :  Change “...is found only in southern California...” to ... is mainly coastal from southern California to Oregon...   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 393, under Lecidea lapicida, line 3: For “rimose-areolate, without a prothallus,” read: … rimose-areolate, or largely disappearing (endolithic), without a prothallus.    [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 399, 1st paragraph. Change sentence beginning, “Some North American material…” to: Lepraria normandinioides has a distinctly bluish gray thallus….    ….instead of pannaric acid.  Plate 448 shows this species, but the bluish color of the original photograph did not reproduce well in the book.  Lepraria vouauxiirepresents…

p. 400, key, subheading in parentheses following KEY TO SPECIES, and couplet 2: Replace “Hydrothyrea,” with Hydrothyria. [The spelling is correct elsewhere in the book.]   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 401 (key), 406-407, plate 459 and index: “Leptogium millegranum” should be milligranum. [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004, EXCEPT on page 407, top paragraph, line 13.]   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 404, under Leptogium corticola, line 2:  For “lobes 2-20 mm,” read: lobes 2-5 mm.

p. 408, map of L. polycarpum.  Records for SE Arizona are incorrect.

p.409. Leptogium pseudofurfuraceum: Picture is from NW California, but map shows only southern California. SEE REVISED MAP ATTACHED.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 431, key, couplet 17, both choices: Change the comma preceding “lower surface”  to a semi-colon. [In third printing, 17 April 2004, a semi-colon was mistakenly placed after “lower surface” in couplet 17(b), and the commas preceding “lower surface” were not changed. THEREFORE, change the version in the third printing as follows:
            17. Isidia solid; lower surface black; …
            17. Isidia hollow; lower surface pale to dark brown; …
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 431. couplet 23a: Change to …. lobes often with lobules at least in center of thallus. [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004.]

p. 444. Multiclavula corynoides, lines 11-12. flesh-ier, not fles-hier.  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 446, right column, line 9:  Change to: ... and M. fucatus  is PD+ red, K+ yellow, KC- C-, UV- (fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids and atranorin).   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 461, under Nodobryoria oregana, Comments:   Should read: The most reliable characters for recognizing N. oregana in the field are the…

p. 461, under Normandina pulchella, line 9:  Add: ... or on the upper surface; lower surface of squamules white, sometimes tomentose, lacking a cortex.  [Wording can be modified so that the addition fits into exactly one line of type.]   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 480, key. Key out Parmelinopsis horrescens as C+ pink as well as C-; Therefore change couplet 7 as follows:
            7. . Isidia cylindrical to flattened, with black cilia at the tips; medulla C- or C+ pink, KC+ purplish pink, PD- (contains mainly derivatives of gyrophoric and hiascic acids)
            ........... Parmelinopsis horrescens
            7. . Isidia cylindrical,without black cilia growing from the tips ........... 8

            8. Medulla C+ pink to red, KC+ red, PD-, K- (contains mainly gyrophoric acid); medulla white or rarely slightly yellowish ........... Parmelinopsis minarum
            8. Medulla C-, KC– or KC+ orange-yellow, PD+ orange, K+ yellow to red; medulla pale yellow (secalonic and galbinic acids) ………………….……………Myelochroa obsessa
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 486, under Parmelinopsis horrescens, last line, AND p. 487, left column, 1st line:: Replace … purplish pink, C- (hiascic acid complex: 2,5 di-O-methylhiascic acid?)” with “… purplish pink, C- or sometimes C+ pink (mainly 3-methoxy-2,4-di-O-methylgyrophoric acid, with hiascic acids)”   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

 

p. 487, under Parmelinopsis minarum: Replace “and its medulla is C-” with: “and its medulla is always C+ pink.”   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

 

p. 499, caption for Plate 582, Parmotrema praesorediatum should read “(above)” rather than “(left)”. [Corrected in second printing, 2002.]

p. 522, Key to Peltula: couplet 3b should lead to 4, not 2.

p. 538, Phaeophyscia, line 8. Change to: ... spores dark brown with thickened walls creating angular or round locules; conidia...   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 540, left column, top line.  Change to: … cernohorskyi. Phaeophyscia kairamoi, a species on rock or bark in the western mountains, has cortical ….   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 542, left column, top paragraph, line 7.   Change to: … across. Phaeophyscia endococcinodes, rather rare in the southwest and the southern boreal region, has wider lobes and a red-orange medulla. Its spores ….   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 542, left column, last line.  Delete: “, as shown in plate 650” : [and so, it should read:]… on the margins (ssp. limbata), or mainly…. 
            right column, line 2: Change to: …. very sparse or even absent, as in the thallus shown in plate 650. [OR:] as shown in plate 650.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 547. Key to Physcia: couplet 9b: Medulla entirely white, K+ yellow (atranorin) or K-; thallus usually without pruina………………………………….10  [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004.]

p. 548, key, couplet 29(a).  For “caesiopruinosa,”  read albovirens. [based on comments by Amtoft (2002)] [See also correction on p. 616.]  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 553: Physcia callosa: change to Physcia tribacea (syn. Ph. callosa)  [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004, without changing alphabetical order of species. Other references to Physcia callosa in book are unchanged in third printing, and “tribacea” was not put into the index. THEREFORE: it would probably be best to change it back to Physcia callosa, as it was in the first printing.]   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 558, under Physcia subtilis, CHEMISTRY: For “Medulla K+ yellow (atranorin), but… ” read: Medulla K-, but…   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 578 and 787: “Pleopsidium oxytona” should be Pleopsidium oxytonum. [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004.]

p. 586, under Protoparmelia. DESCRIPTION: [Change to:] Crustose lichens with brownish thalli, thick, areolate to verrucose, (species on rock) or granular (species on bark or wood).  Photobiont….   
            HABITAT: Usually on granitic rocks in well-lit sites, but a few grow on wood or bark such as P. ochrococca, not uncommon on conifers in California and Oregon. COMMENTS: The shiny red-brown to dark brown apothecia and well developed chocolate- or red-brown thallus granules or verrucae are the most distinctive features of this genus in the field. Some brown species of Lecanora and Acarospora are superficially similar.    [Delete: The spores and chemistry should be checked for confirmation.]   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 606, key, couplet 4(a): For “medulla C+ pink or C-,” read:  medulla C+ red, or C-.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 606, key, couplet 5(a), first line, For “Medulla C+ pink, medulla KC+ red (gyrophoric acid);” read: Medulla C+ red, KC+ red (lecanoric acid);   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 610, left column, line 12.  For: “...from Ohio and West Virginia...” read: ... from Ohio, West Virginia, and the Pacific Northwest ...   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 616, left column, line 6: For “(anthraquinones),” read: (russulone).   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 616, right column, under Pyxine berteriana, line 14: Change sentence to: Pyxine albovirens , which is also UV+ yellow, has patches of soredia on the lobe surface; P. caesiopruinosa has fragments of burst pustules (schizidia), which can resemble soredia, along the margins.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 621 (key), couplet 20, read:
            20. Apothecia sometimes on the branch surface or along margins … 21
            20. Apothecia typically on or close to the tips of the branches ….  23
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 623, under Ramalina complanata: For “spores 12-18 x 5-6 μm,” read: spores 9-15(-18) x 4-6 μm.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 664, key, couplet 14(a): For “…conspicuous, coarsely granular and covered with tomentum or lumpy and bare…” read: conspicuous, pinkish brown and lumpy or, rarely, blue-green and granular…  [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 664, key, couplet 15, Reword as follows:
            15. Thallus PD+ orange (containing stictic acid); thallus erect or prostrate; widespread boreal             to North Temperate ………………………………………… Stereocaulon tomentosum
            15. Thallus PD- or PD+ yellow (containing lobaric acid); thallus prostrate; mainly western
            ……………………………………………………………….. Stereocaulon sasakii
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 665, Stereocaulon grande.  DESCRIPTION: line 7: Change wording: 
            …cephalodia lumpy to brain-like, large, ca. 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter, conspicuous on the stems, typically brownish pink, or rarely forming clusters of dark blue-green, tomentose granules. Apothecia frequently produced, terminal or lateral, typically clustered at the branch tips, often broken into segments, dark brown. ...   [Note: The changed wording has almost the same number of words as the original.]   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 669, under Stereocaulon tomentosum.  Description:  Thallus erect to prostrate, often somewhat dorsiventral.   (COMMENTS):  Except for the different chemistry, this species…   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 692, left column, 3 lines from bottom:  … fatty acids, normally lacks cilia, and ….   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 694, under Tuckermannopsis orbata, line 9:  For “athough,” read: although.
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 709, 14 lines from bottom: For “tubercules,” read: tubercles.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 710, right column, almost half-way down page:  Change “(see Fig. 37b)” to ... (see Fig. 36b).   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 711, key, couplet 7(b)  For “PD- or PD+ yellow, K-, KC-,” read: PD- or PD+ yellow, K- or K+ red, KC- …    [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 711, key, couplet 9, remove all references to chemical tests:
            9.(5)........... Medulla loose and webby (lax). Branches dented and pitted, not divided into segments by circular cracks........... Usnea cavernosa
            9. Medulla thin and compact........... 10
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 718.  Usnea filipendula, HABITAT:  Delete “eastern conifer forests.”  It should therefore read:  … growing mainly on spruce.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 726, under Usnea subscabrosa, HABITAT:   For “On trees of various kinds.” Read: On trees of various kinds and occasionally on rocks.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 749, right column, top line: For Xylographa vitilago, read vitiligo.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 780 Delete entry under Ionaspis:
                        epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell, 363
            Replace with new entry under Hymenelia:
                        epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni, 363
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 787, Index, under Protoparmelia:
            ochrococca (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg., Rambold & Hertel, 586
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 788, index, last column, under Pyxine: add:
            albovirens (G. Meyer) Aptroot, 616
[Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 788. Under Pyxine,For “caesiopruinosa (Tuck.) Imshaug,” read: caesiopruinosa (Nyl.) Imshaug. (See Amtoff, Bryol. 105:270. 2002.) [Corrected in third printing, 17 April 2004.]

p. 791, right column, top, under Sphinctrina: For “anglica Nyl.,” read: turbinata (Pers. ex Fr.) de Not.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

p. 795. For Xylographa vitilago, read vitiligo.   [Corrected in fourth printing, February 2007.]

Acknowledgements.  We are grateful to the following individuals for bringing to our attention the errors they found in the book:  A. Amtoft, Sean Beeching, James Bennett, Stephen Clayden, Jim Ginns, James Hinds, Doug Ladd, James Lendemer, Jan Lindgren, H. Thorsten Lumbsch, Bruce McCune, Claude Roy, Ray Showman, Tor Tønsberg, , Shirley Tucker, Clifford Wetmore and the diligent students at various workshops I’ve given, especially at the Humboldt Field Research Institute at Eagle Hill, Maine.

 

You can contact Dr. Irwin M. Brodo at ibrodo@mus-nature.ca

You can contact Stephen Sharnoff at lichen@idiom.com

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